In order to determine tolerable limit values, the effect of exposure to fumonisin B1 (FB1) administered in the fungal culture of Fusarium monillforme in low doses (10, 20 and 40 ppm) for 4 weeks was examined in weaned pigs. Feeding with the toxin exerted no significant effect on body weight gain and feed consumption, no clinical signs were observed. In computer tomographic examinations performed in the second and fourth week mild and severe pulmonary oedema was diagnosed. The mathematical/statistical procedure applied on the basis of the findings of the CT examinations and the density values obtained proved appropriate for the in vivo detection of changes developing in the pulmonary parenchyma. The haematological parameters examined proved to be within the range of the physiological limit values, no change attributable to toxic effect having been detected (data not shown). Of the biochemical parameters studied, in all three experimental groups a dose-dependent Increase In aspartate amlnotransferase (AST) activity, indicating pathological change in the liver, was observed. On examination of the free sphinganine to sphingoslne (SA/SO) ratio -regarded as the most sensitive and specific biomarker to fumonisin exposure - in the blood in the first 8 days of the experiment, an increase proportional to toxin concentration was determined for all three dosages. Dissection revealed mild cases of pulmonary oedema in 3 of the animals subjected to the dose of 10 ppm (n=4), 2 mild and 2 severe cases in those exposed to 20 ppm (n=5) and severe cases in all 5 animals given 40 ppm. By means of histopathological examination subpleural and interlobular, and to a slight extent intraalveolar pulmonary oedema were found, extending to the superficial and peribronchial-peribronchiolar-perivascular area of the lung. In an other experiment three pregnant sows were fed a diet mixed with Fusarium moniliforme fungal culture from the 107th day of pregnancy. The sows were given 300 mg FB1 daily one week before (3rd sow) and for a further 7 days after parturition (1st and 2nd sow). It was established that FB1 had harmful effects on foetuses while still In the uterus. Of the disordes caused by the toxin subpleural, interlobular and intraalveolar pulmonary oedema of different severity was observed in the piglets slaughtered immediately after birth, before the first suckling. Pathological change was demonstrated in the histopathological finding for the liver, and in the activity of plasma AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phoshatase (ALKP), wich in each case was found to be higher than physiological levels. The serum SA/SO values varied in accordance with the severity of the changes observed in the lungs. They were found to be between 0.29 and 0.36 in the case of severe pulmonary oedema, and between 0.20 and 0.24 for slight changes. In the piglets of the sows fed the toxin for a further 7 days after parturition (1st and 2nd sow) a mild pulmonary oedema could be detected after colostrum suckling, examined 24 hours after parturition and also on the 7th day. No change was observed on the 7th day in the piglets of the 3rd sow fed a toxin-free diet after parturition. The SA/SO values of the serum in these two piglets were 0.19 and 0.20, while at the same time AST, GGT and ALKP were elevated. In the milk samples taken from the 1st and 2nd sow examined after 24 hours and on the 7th day FB1 was detected in quantities of 18.0-27.5 ppb.
|Translated title of the contribution||Investigations on the tolerable limit values and the perinatal toxic effect of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2000|
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