Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is widely distributed in ocular tissues, including the lacrimal gland. PACAP has been shown to influence the activity of several exocrine glands, but its effects on the composition of the tear film are not known yet. Similarly, the presence of PACAP has already been shown in the inner ear, but it is not known whether PACAP influences the composition of the endolymph. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether systemic injection of PACAP has any modulatory effects on the protein composition of the tear film and endolymph using chip electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis. Tear and endolymph samples were collected from rats and chickens, respectively, at various time points after systemic injection of PACAP. Fluid samples were further processed for chip electrophoretic studies. No difference was found in the protein composition of the endolymph between control and PACAP-treated animals. In contrast, tear samples showed a marked difference after PACAP treatment. Proteins in the molecular range 50-70 kDa, which showed a different chip electropherogram profile in every PACAP-treated sample, were further analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PACAP treatment induced a repression in certain keratins, while others were induced after PACAP injection. Furthermore, PACAP treatment decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase expression. The present study provides a base for further studies on the in vivo effects of PACAP on the composition of tear film. These investigations may have important clinical relevance because of the noninvasive sample collection, the correlation between tear proteins and ocular diseases, and the possible presence of biomarkers for both ophthalmological and systemic pathological conditions.
- Chip electrophoresis
- MALDI TOF mass spectrometry
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience