Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapeutic option for malignant hematopoietic diseases. Cytokines including transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) play a pivotal role in immune reconstruction, and the development of graft versus host disease (GvHD) or infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TGFB1 gene −1347C>T variant in the outcome of HSCT in a cohort of 409 adult recipient-donor pairs. TGFB1 variant was analysed from genomic DNA with LightCycler hybridisation probe method. In case of myeloablative conditioning, donor TGFB1 genotype correlated with overall survival (60-month OS for CC: 62.1 ± 4.8%; CT: 46.8 ± 4.8%; TT: 35.6 ± 9.3%; p = 0.032), which was independent of age, donor type and GvHD prophylaxis in multivariate analysis (HR:2.35, 95%CI:1.35–4.10, p = 0.003). The cumulative incidence of acute GvHD grade III–IV [CC:10%; CT:17%; TT:24%], and non-relapse mortality was higher in TT-carriers (24-month NRM: CC:24%; CT:26%; TT:46%, p = 0.035). We did not find any association between recipient TGFB1 −1347C>T polymorphism and HSCT outcome. Our results suggest that donor TGFB1 −1347C>T may exert an adverse influence on the outcome of myeloablative conditioning transplantation.
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