Endoscopic double papillotomy occupied the place of surgical transduodenal double sphincteroplasty for disorders of papilla of Vater or chronic pancreatitis several years ago. Endoscopic cystoenterostomy and cystogastrostomy can also replace surgery in the treatment of pseudocysts and walled-of necrosis even in cases of severe acute pancreatitis with/or without sepsis. In chronic pancreatitis endotherapy may be the treatment of choice at first, although surgical techniques give somewhat better long-term results for pain relief. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, stone resolution or extraction and multiple pancreatic stents without aggressive balloon dilatation can progressively calibrate dominant stricture of the main pancreatic duct without further damage, ischemia or obstraction of side branches. Relapse-free period becomes longer (also after stents removal) if alcohol consumption and smoking are stopped definitively. Well-controlled, randomised studies are still needed to demonstrate clinical advantage of multiple endoscopic stent placement in comparison to surgery.
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