Background: Mangalica breeds are indigenous to Hungary and their breeding history dates back to about 200-250 years ago. They are fat-type pigs and have a rare curly hair phenotype. The aim of our study was to establish the relationships between these unique breeds and other European breeds. Results: Based on a core sequence of 382 bp present in 2713 mitochondrial D-loop sequences from pigs belonging to 38 local breeds from nine countries, five cosmopolitan breeds and wild boars from 14 countries, we identified 164 haplotypes. More than half of the 2713 sequences belonged to either four haplotypes characteristic of continental European breeds or two haplotypes characteristic of British/cosmopolitan breeds; each haplotype is present in more than 100 individuals. Most Mangalica individuals belonged either to one of these common continental European haplotypes or to two Mangalica-specific haplotypes that were absent in all other breeds. In addition, we identified the ancestral mitochondrial D-loop signature present in these 2713 sequences and found that ∼ 80% carried the European ancient signatures, ANC-Aside and ANC-Cside or their closely related signatures, while most of the remaining sequences carried a modern Asian signature, ANC-Easia. Mangalica individuals carried the ANC-Aside signature, but not the ANC-Cside or ANC-Easia signatures. Conclusions: In all the Mangalica individuals, a unique ancient European signature was found in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region, but they belonged almost exclusively to either certain very abundant European or two Mangalica-specific D-loop haplotypes. This indicates that the present-day Mangalica population in Hungary evolved either by introgression of other European breeds and wild boars or via total isolation after the divergence of European ancient porcine bloodlines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Animal Science and Zoology