### Abstract

This is the third part of a three-volume introductory course about integrable systems of interacting bodies. The emphasis is put onto the method of Thermodynamic Bethe ansatz. Two kinds of integrable models are studied. Systems of itinerant electrons, forming a part of Condensed Matter Physics, involve the Hubbard lattice model of electrons with short-ranged one-site interactions (Sect. 20) and the s-d exchange Kondo model (Sect. 21), describing the scattering of conduction electrons on a spin-s impurity. Methods and basic concepts used in Quantum Field Theory are explained on the integrable (1 + 1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model. We start with the classical description of the model in Sect. 22, analyze its finite energy field configurations (soliton, anti-soliton and breathers) and show its classical integrability. The model is quantized by using two schemes: the conformal (Sect. 23) and Lagrangian (Sect. 24) quantizations. The scattering matrix of the sine-Gordon theory is derived at the full quantum level in the bootstrap scheme and is compared to its classical limit in Sect. 25. The parameters of the scattering matrix are related to those of the Lagrangian by calculating the ground-state energy in an applied magnetic field in two ways: Conformal perturbation theory and Thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (Sect. 26). The relation of the sine-Gordon theory to the XXZ Heisenberg model, which provides a complete solution of the sine-Gordon model in a finite volume, is pointed out in Sect. 27. The obtained results are applied in Sect. 28. to the derivation of the exact thermodynamics for the (symmetric) two-component Coulomb gas; this is the first classical two-dimensional fluid with exactly solvable thermodynamics.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 129-271 |

Number of pages | 143 |

Journal | Acta Physica Slovaca |

Volume | 61 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Apr 1 2011 |

### Keywords

- Conformal quantization
- Hubbard model
- Integrable systems
- Kondo effect
- Scattering matrix
- Sine-Gordon model
- Thermodynamic Bethe ansatz
- Two-dimensional Coulomb gas

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Physics and Astronomy(all)

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## Cite this

*Acta Physica Slovaca*,

*61*(2), 129-271. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10155-011-0002-x