Dynamical systems have been described with differential equations since the appearance of the differential calculus; Newton’s second law could be considered one of the first examples. A differential equation can serve as a model for how the rate of change of state depends on the present state of a system. However, the rate of change of state may depend on past states, too. It has been known for a long time that several problems can be described by models including past effects.
|Title of host publication||Applied Mathematical Sciences (Switzerland)|
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2011|
|Name||Applied Mathematical Sciences (Switzerland)|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Mathematics