Intrinsically flame retardant epoxy resin - Fire performance and background - Part II

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The flame retardant mechanism of a newly synthesized phosphorus-containing reactive amine, which can be used both as crosslinking agent in epoxy resins and as flame retardant, was investigated. The mode of action and degradation pathway were investigated by in situ analysis of the gases evolved during the degradation by thermogravimetric measurements coupled online with infrared (TG-EGA-FTIR) and mass spectroscopy (TG/DTA-EGA-MS) and by solid residue analysis by infrared (ATR) spectroscopic methods and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that the main difference in the degradation of the reference and the flame retardant system is that the degradation of the latter begins at lower temperature mainly with the emission of degradation products of the phosphorus amine, which act as flame retardants in the gas phase slowing down the further degradation steps. At the high temperature degradation stage the solid phase effect of the phosphorus prevails: the formation of phosphorocarbonaceous intumescent char results in a mass residue of 23.4%. The ratio of phosphorus acting in gas phase and solid phase, respectively, was determined on the basis of thermogravimetric and XPS measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2007-2013
Number of pages7
JournalPolymer Degradation and Stability
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2008



  • Degradation mechanism by TG-EGA-FTIR, TG/DTA-EGA-MS, ATR-IR, XPS
  • Epoxy resin
  • Flame retardancy
  • Mode of action
  • organophosphorous reactive amine flame retardant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

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