Intercalation of sodium and lithium into graphite as a first stage in an electrochemical method for producing carbon nanotubes

J. Sychev, N. V. Borisenko, G. Kaptay, Kh B. Kushkhov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A cyclic voltammetry method is used to show that the process of reduction of sodium (and, possibly, lithium) out of melts of corresponding chlorides on the molybdenum, glassy-carbon, and graphite electrodes is complicated by the process of dissolution of the corresponding alkali metal in the melt. A notion called "reversibility of material balance" is introduced. The notion reflects the ratio of the amount of substance that undergoes oxidation in the anodic half-cycle of a voltammetric curve to the amount of substance that is deposited in the cathodic half-cycle of the curve. The adsorption of sodium and lithium on glassy carbon and graphite plays an important role in the process of reduction, leading to an increase in the reversibility of the process. This is pronounced especially strongly at potential scan rates below 1 V s-1. The sodium intercalation into graphite leads to a decrease in the reversibility of the process of reduction, the more so at potential scan rates below 0.03 V s-1. However, the intercalation of lithium (probably because of its small atomic radius) does not exert practically any influence on the reversibility of process at the above potential scan rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)956-963
Number of pages8
JournalRussian Journal of Electrochemistry
Volume41
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2005

Fingerprint

Carbon Nanotubes
Graphite
Intercalation
Lithium
Carbon nanotubes
Sodium
Glassy carbon
Alkali Metals
Graphite electrodes
Molybdenum
Alkali metals
Cyclic voltammetry
Chlorides
Dissolution
Adsorption
Oxidation

Keywords

  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Deposition
  • Graphite
  • Intercalation
  • Lithium
  • Lithium chloride
  • Reversibility
  • Sodium
  • Sodium chloride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry

Cite this

Intercalation of sodium and lithium into graphite as a first stage in an electrochemical method for producing carbon nanotubes. / Sychev, J.; Borisenko, N. V.; Kaptay, G.; Kushkhov, Kh B.

In: Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, Vol. 41, No. 9, 09.2005, p. 956-963.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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