Intercalation of kaolinite with acetamide

R. L. Frost, J. Kristof, G. N. Paroz, J. T. Kloprogge

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32 Citations (Scopus)


Upon intercalation of both ordered (low defect) and disordered (high defect) kaolinites with acetamide, two types of interaction are observed. Firstly, hydrogen bonding between the NH2 groups of the acetamide with the siloxane oxygens is formed, as evidenced by the formation of two new bands at 3400 and 3509 cm-1. Secondly, the appearance of additional bands at ~3600 cm-1 in both the infrared and Raman spectra of the acetamide intercalates is attributed to a second type of hydrogen bonding by the interaction of the C=O group and the inner surface hydroxyls. Changes in the intensity of the hydroxyl deformation modes in the 895 to 940 cm-1 region are attributed to the changes in the hydrogen bonding of the kaolinite surfaces. It is proposed that the hydrogen bonding between the adjacent kaolinite layers is replaced with hydrogen bonding between both kaolinite surfaces and the acetamide molecule. Changes in the molecular structure of acetamide are observed upon intercalation. The amide 1 band is lost and replaced with a well-defined NH2 deformation vibration. The loss of the amide 1 band is attributed the hydrogen bond formation between the amide hydrogens and the siloxane surface. The bands of the C=O group at 1680 and 1740 cm-1 become a single band at 1680 cm-1. The amide 2 band remains unchanged. The lack of intensity of the 1740 cm-1 band is attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonding between the inner surface hydroxyl groups and the carbonyl group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-263
Number of pages7
JournalPhysics and Chemistry of Minerals
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 1999


  • Acetamide
  • DRIFT spectroscopy
  • Hydrogen bonding
  • Intercalation
  • Kaolinite
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

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