A kálium és bór elemek közötti kölcsönhatások vizsgálata tartamkísé rletben

Translated title of the contribution: Interactions between potassium and boron in a long-term experiment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Interactions between potassium and boron were investigated in 1988 on a pseudomyceliar (calcareous) chernozem soil at the Experimental Station of RISSAC in Nagyhörcsök, using sunflower as indicator plant. Basic fertilization was applied at a rate of 100 kg each of N and P2O 5 per hectare. K2O rates of 0, 1000 and 2000 kg•ha-1 and B rates of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg•ha-1 were applied in autumn 1987, after alfalfa as forecrop. The fertilizers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, 60% KCl and 11% borax. The three K rates formed the main plots and the four B rates the subplots. Each of the 12 treatments was tested in three replications on a total of 36 plots arranged in a split-plot design. The ploughed layer contained around 5% CaCO3, 3% humus and 20-22% clay. The soil originally had good supplies of N, Ca, Mg and Mn, moderately good supplies of K and relatively poor supplies of P and Zn. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. During the growing period of sunflower there was 290 mm rainfall (close to the long-term mean), but May and July were extremely dry. The main conclusions were as follows: - The number of plants per hectare at harvest dropped significantly from 34,000 to 23,000 on the K control plots in response to B application. However, the lower plant density resulted in the production of larger flower heads, and greater thousand-seed mass and seed mass per flower head, thus preventing a loss of yield. On plots replenished with potassium, this negative effect of boron was not observed. The distribution of the total air-dry aboveground biomass (5.5 t•ha-1) was 2.1 for seeds, 2.1 for stems and 1.3 t•ha-1 for the flower heads. - The B content of sunflower organs was significantly increased by B fertilization, while K fertilization led to a significant or insignificant decrease. The largest quantity of boron (averaging 69 mg•kg- 1) was accumulated in the flower heads at harvest. This was around three times the mean B content of the stem and seeds. The K content of the plants was not modified significantly by K fertilization. - Na and Fe were mainly accumulated in the roots of 4-6-leaf plants, N, K, Ca and Mg in the shoots, Ca and Cu, as well as B, in the flower heads at harvest, and N, P, Zn and Cu in the seeds. There was a reduction in the N, P, Zn and Cu contents of the stem, while these elements accumulated in the seeds. - The element content of 1 t seed yield + the corresponding stem and flower head by-products amounted to approximately 46 kg N, 40 kg K (47 kg K2O), 27 kg Ca (38 kg CaO), 7 kg P (16 kg P2O5) and 7 kg Mg (11 kg MgO). These data could be used as guidelines for the estimation of the nutrient requirements of sunflower by the extension service. - The fertilizer requirements of sunflower, generally considered to exhaust the soil and have a high demand for nutrients, declined drastically in the case of combine harvesting, since most of the K, Ca and Mg was found in the by-products, which were not removed from the field.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)161-178
Number of pages18
JournalAgrokemia es Talajtan
Volume60
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2011

Fingerprint

long term experiments
boron
potassium
Helianthus annuus
flower
seed
flowers
seeds
stem
stems
byproducts
calcium ammonium nitrate
borax
fertilizer requirements
fertilizer
superphosphate
calcareous soils
Chernozem
soil
nutrient requirements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Soil Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

A kálium és bór elemek közötti kölcsönhatások vizsgálata tartamkísé rletben. / Kádár, I.

In: Agrokemia es Talajtan, Vol. 60, No. 1, 01.06.2011, p. 161-178.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "A k{\'a}lium {\'e}s b{\'o}r elemek k{\"o}z{\"o}tti k{\"o}lcs{\"o}nhat{\'a}sok vizsg{\'a}lata tartamk{\'i}s{\'e} rletben",
abstract = "Interactions between potassium and boron were investigated in 1988 on a pseudomyceliar (calcareous) chernozem soil at the Experimental Station of RISSAC in Nagyh{\"o}rcs{\"o}k, using sunflower as indicator plant. Basic fertilization was applied at a rate of 100 kg each of N and P2O 5 per hectare. K2O rates of 0, 1000 and 2000 kg•ha-1 and B rates of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg•ha-1 were applied in autumn 1987, after alfalfa as forecrop. The fertilizers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, 60{\%} KCl and 11{\%} borax. The three K rates formed the main plots and the four B rates the subplots. Each of the 12 treatments was tested in three replications on a total of 36 plots arranged in a split-plot design. The ploughed layer contained around 5{\%} CaCO3, 3{\%} humus and 20-22{\%} clay. The soil originally had good supplies of N, Ca, Mg and Mn, moderately good supplies of K and relatively poor supplies of P and Zn. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. During the growing period of sunflower there was 290 mm rainfall (close to the long-term mean), but May and July were extremely dry. The main conclusions were as follows: - The number of plants per hectare at harvest dropped significantly from 34,000 to 23,000 on the K control plots in response to B application. However, the lower plant density resulted in the production of larger flower heads, and greater thousand-seed mass and seed mass per flower head, thus preventing a loss of yield. On plots replenished with potassium, this negative effect of boron was not observed. The distribution of the total air-dry aboveground biomass (5.5 t•ha-1) was 2.1 for seeds, 2.1 for stems and 1.3 t•ha-1 for the flower heads. - The B content of sunflower organs was significantly increased by B fertilization, while K fertilization led to a significant or insignificant decrease. The largest quantity of boron (averaging 69 mg•kg- 1) was accumulated in the flower heads at harvest. This was around three times the mean B content of the stem and seeds. The K content of the plants was not modified significantly by K fertilization. - Na and Fe were mainly accumulated in the roots of 4-6-leaf plants, N, K, Ca and Mg in the shoots, Ca and Cu, as well as B, in the flower heads at harvest, and N, P, Zn and Cu in the seeds. There was a reduction in the N, P, Zn and Cu contents of the stem, while these elements accumulated in the seeds. - The element content of 1 t seed yield + the corresponding stem and flower head by-products amounted to approximately 46 kg N, 40 kg K (47 kg K2O), 27 kg Ca (38 kg CaO), 7 kg P (16 kg P2O5) and 7 kg Mg (11 kg MgO). These data could be used as guidelines for the estimation of the nutrient requirements of sunflower by the extension service. - The fertilizer requirements of sunflower, generally considered to exhaust the soil and have a high demand for nutrients, declined drastically in the case of combine harvesting, since most of the K, Ca and Mg was found in the by-products, which were not removed from the field.",
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N2 - Interactions between potassium and boron were investigated in 1988 on a pseudomyceliar (calcareous) chernozem soil at the Experimental Station of RISSAC in Nagyhörcsök, using sunflower as indicator plant. Basic fertilization was applied at a rate of 100 kg each of N and P2O 5 per hectare. K2O rates of 0, 1000 and 2000 kg•ha-1 and B rates of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg•ha-1 were applied in autumn 1987, after alfalfa as forecrop. The fertilizers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, 60% KCl and 11% borax. The three K rates formed the main plots and the four B rates the subplots. Each of the 12 treatments was tested in three replications on a total of 36 plots arranged in a split-plot design. The ploughed layer contained around 5% CaCO3, 3% humus and 20-22% clay. The soil originally had good supplies of N, Ca, Mg and Mn, moderately good supplies of K and relatively poor supplies of P and Zn. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. During the growing period of sunflower there was 290 mm rainfall (close to the long-term mean), but May and July were extremely dry. The main conclusions were as follows: - The number of plants per hectare at harvest dropped significantly from 34,000 to 23,000 on the K control plots in response to B application. However, the lower plant density resulted in the production of larger flower heads, and greater thousand-seed mass and seed mass per flower head, thus preventing a loss of yield. On plots replenished with potassium, this negative effect of boron was not observed. The distribution of the total air-dry aboveground biomass (5.5 t•ha-1) was 2.1 for seeds, 2.1 for stems and 1.3 t•ha-1 for the flower heads. - The B content of sunflower organs was significantly increased by B fertilization, while K fertilization led to a significant or insignificant decrease. The largest quantity of boron (averaging 69 mg•kg- 1) was accumulated in the flower heads at harvest. This was around three times the mean B content of the stem and seeds. The K content of the plants was not modified significantly by K fertilization. - Na and Fe were mainly accumulated in the roots of 4-6-leaf plants, N, K, Ca and Mg in the shoots, Ca and Cu, as well as B, in the flower heads at harvest, and N, P, Zn and Cu in the seeds. There was a reduction in the N, P, Zn and Cu contents of the stem, while these elements accumulated in the seeds. - The element content of 1 t seed yield + the corresponding stem and flower head by-products amounted to approximately 46 kg N, 40 kg K (47 kg K2O), 27 kg Ca (38 kg CaO), 7 kg P (16 kg P2O5) and 7 kg Mg (11 kg MgO). These data could be used as guidelines for the estimation of the nutrient requirements of sunflower by the extension service. - The fertilizer requirements of sunflower, generally considered to exhaust the soil and have a high demand for nutrients, declined drastically in the case of combine harvesting, since most of the K, Ca and Mg was found in the by-products, which were not removed from the field.

AB - Interactions between potassium and boron were investigated in 1988 on a pseudomyceliar (calcareous) chernozem soil at the Experimental Station of RISSAC in Nagyhörcsök, using sunflower as indicator plant. Basic fertilization was applied at a rate of 100 kg each of N and P2O 5 per hectare. K2O rates of 0, 1000 and 2000 kg•ha-1 and B rates of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg•ha-1 were applied in autumn 1987, after alfalfa as forecrop. The fertilizers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, 60% KCl and 11% borax. The three K rates formed the main plots and the four B rates the subplots. Each of the 12 treatments was tested in three replications on a total of 36 plots arranged in a split-plot design. The ploughed layer contained around 5% CaCO3, 3% humus and 20-22% clay. The soil originally had good supplies of N, Ca, Mg and Mn, moderately good supplies of K and relatively poor supplies of P and Zn. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. During the growing period of sunflower there was 290 mm rainfall (close to the long-term mean), but May and July were extremely dry. The main conclusions were as follows: - The number of plants per hectare at harvest dropped significantly from 34,000 to 23,000 on the K control plots in response to B application. However, the lower plant density resulted in the production of larger flower heads, and greater thousand-seed mass and seed mass per flower head, thus preventing a loss of yield. On plots replenished with potassium, this negative effect of boron was not observed. The distribution of the total air-dry aboveground biomass (5.5 t•ha-1) was 2.1 for seeds, 2.1 for stems and 1.3 t•ha-1 for the flower heads. - The B content of sunflower organs was significantly increased by B fertilization, while K fertilization led to a significant or insignificant decrease. The largest quantity of boron (averaging 69 mg•kg- 1) was accumulated in the flower heads at harvest. This was around three times the mean B content of the stem and seeds. The K content of the plants was not modified significantly by K fertilization. - Na and Fe were mainly accumulated in the roots of 4-6-leaf plants, N, K, Ca and Mg in the shoots, Ca and Cu, as well as B, in the flower heads at harvest, and N, P, Zn and Cu in the seeds. There was a reduction in the N, P, Zn and Cu contents of the stem, while these elements accumulated in the seeds. - The element content of 1 t seed yield + the corresponding stem and flower head by-products amounted to approximately 46 kg N, 40 kg K (47 kg K2O), 27 kg Ca (38 kg CaO), 7 kg P (16 kg P2O5) and 7 kg Mg (11 kg MgO). These data could be used as guidelines for the estimation of the nutrient requirements of sunflower by the extension service. - The fertilizer requirements of sunflower, generally considered to exhaust the soil and have a high demand for nutrients, declined drastically in the case of combine harvesting, since most of the K, Ca and Mg was found in the by-products, which were not removed from the field.

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