Interaction of SN Ib 2004dk with a Previously Expelled Envelope

David Pooley, J. Craig Wheeler, Jozsef Vinkó, Vikram V. Dwarkadas, Tamas Szalai, Jeffrey M. Silverman, Madelaine Griesel, Molly McCullough, G. H. Marion, Phillip MacQueen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The interaction between the expanding supernova (SN) ejecta with the circumstellar material (CSM) that was expelled from the progenitor prior to explosion is a long-sought phenomenon, yet observational evidence is scarce. Here we confirm a new example: SN 2004dk, originally a hydrogen-poor, helium-rich Type Ib SN that reappeared as a strong-emitting point source on narrowband images. We present follow-up optical spectroscopy that reveals the presence of a broad component with full width at half maximum of ∼ 290 in addition to the narrow +[N ii] emission features from the host galaxy. Such a broad component is a clear sign of an ejecta-CSM interaction. We also present observations with the XMM-Newton Observatory, the Swift satellite, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory that span 10 days to 15 years after discovery. The detection of strong radio, X-ray, and emission years after explosion allows various constraints to be put on pre-SN mass-loss processes. We present a wind-bubble model in which the CSM is "pre-prepared" by a fast wind interacting with a slow wind. Much of the outer density profile into which the SN explodes corresponds to no steady-state mass-loss process. We estimate that the shell of compressed slow wind material was ejected ∼1400 yr prior to explosion, perhaps during carbon burning, and that the SN shock had swept up about 0.04 of material. The region emitting the has a density of order 10-20 g cm-3

Original languageEnglish
Article number120
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2019


  • circumstellar matter
  • supernovae: individual (2004dk)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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    Pooley, D., Wheeler, J. C., Vinkó, J., Dwarkadas, V. V., Szalai, T., Silverman, J. M., Griesel, M., McCullough, M., Marion, G. H., & MacQueen, P. (2019). Interaction of SN Ib 2004dk with a Previously Expelled Envelope. Astrophysical Journal, 883(2), [120].