Insulin binding to its plasma membrane receptor stimulates a cascade of protein kinases and phosphatases which ultimately affects multiple processes in the membrane, cytosol, and nucleus of the cell, including transcription of specific genes. To gain insight into the relationship between the kinase cascade and the mechanism of insulin-induced nuclear events, we have studied the effect of insulin on the phosphorylation of DNA-binding nuclear proteins in differentiated NIH-3T3-F442A adipocytes. Insulin induced the phosphorylation of seven DNA-binding proteins: pp34, pp40, pp48, pp62, pp64, pp66, and pp72. The half-maximal response was observed at 10-30 min and reached its maximum at 60 min. The insulin-induced phosphorylation of each of these proteins was dose-dependent with ED50s of 2-10 nM. The phosphorylation of pp62, pp64, and pp72 took place on serine residues. On the basis of immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting experiments with anti-lamin antibodies, we found that the insulin-induced DNA-binding phosphoproteins pp62, pp64, pp66, and possibly pp48 were related to lamins A and C. The ED50 for insulin-stimulated lamin phosphorylation was ~10 nM, and phosphorylation was half-maximal at 30 min. The insulin-dependent phosphorylation of lamins and other DNA-binding proteins (pp34, pp40, and pp72) may play a mediatory role in the long-term effects of insulin.
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