Capsule Urbanization effects in an Eastern European city depend on feeding and breeding traits of bird communities with stronger negative effects on more specialized traits. Aims To assess how urbanization affects feeding and breeding traits of bird communities in Cluj (Romania).Methods Based on a stratified random sampling we selected 61 study squares of 200 × 200 m for bird surveys representing the following habitats: suburban, residential and apartment complex (representing an increasing urbanization gradient). We carried out bird censuses in both breeding and wintering seasons. The observed bird species were classified according to their feeding guilds and nesting sites. Results Insectivorous and open-cup nesting species were most abundant in suburban areas. Omnivorous species richness was not related to urbanization gradient. Species showed similar patterns of distribution during breeding and winter with respect to feeding habits. However, in case of nesting preferences, species richness of cavity nesters increased with urbanization gradient in winter, but decreased in the breeding season. Conclusions Food and nesting site availability are key drivers in limiting more specialist species in utilizing city centres. Future studies should assess the effect of how green areas can counteract such negative effects of increasing urbanization in the context of such specialist trait limitations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Nature and Landscape Conservation