Influencing parameters of direct homogenization intercalation of kaolinite with urea, dimethyl sulfoxide, formamide, and N-methylformamide

E. Makó, András Kovács, T. Kristóf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A detailed investigation of the influencing parameters of the homogenization intercalation method was carried out for a medium-defect kaolinite (Hinckley index = 0.8). The direct synthesis of kaolinite-urea, kaolinite-dimethyl sulfoxide, kaolinite-formamide, and kaolinite-N-methylformamide complexes was systematically studied and the effect of the reaction parameters was analyzed. The Avrami-Erofeev equation modified for diffusion was applied to describe the intercalation kinetics. The present study revealed that the homogenization method reduces the shortcomings of the conventional solution and mechanochemical methods. The homogenization method requires an order of magnitude lower amount of reagents, and results in low-defect complex structures identical to those obtained by the solution method, with a high degree of intercalation. Comparing the studied reaction parameters, the intercalation of kaolinite with urea, dimethyl sulfoxide, and N-methylformamide strongly depends on the aging temperature. Heating at slightly above room temperature (60 °C or 80 °C) makes it possible to complete the intercalation in a short time, while at room temperature the maximum intercalation can take ten times longer. In the case of formamide, the aging temperature has a weaker effect; the reaction rate constant of its intercalation did not increase significantly up to 50 °C.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105287
JournalApplied Clay Science
Volume182
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2019

Fingerprint

methylformamide
Homogenization method
Kaolin
Dimethyl sulfoxide
Kaolinite
Intercalation
Dimethyl Sulfoxide
Amides
Metabolism
Urea
urea
kaolinite
defect
Rate constants
metabolism
Defects
temperature
Aging of materials
Temperature
reaction rate

Keywords

  • Dimethyl sulfoxide
  • Formamide
  • Intercalation
  • Kaolinite
  • N-methylformamide
  • Urea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

@article{5b7079321fb04990b632f0d90eacc251,
title = "Influencing parameters of direct homogenization intercalation of kaolinite with urea, dimethyl sulfoxide, formamide, and N-methylformamide",
abstract = "A detailed investigation of the influencing parameters of the homogenization intercalation method was carried out for a medium-defect kaolinite (Hinckley index = 0.8). The direct synthesis of kaolinite-urea, kaolinite-dimethyl sulfoxide, kaolinite-formamide, and kaolinite-N-methylformamide complexes was systematically studied and the effect of the reaction parameters was analyzed. The Avrami-Erofeev equation modified for diffusion was applied to describe the intercalation kinetics. The present study revealed that the homogenization method reduces the shortcomings of the conventional solution and mechanochemical methods. The homogenization method requires an order of magnitude lower amount of reagents, and results in low-defect complex structures identical to those obtained by the solution method, with a high degree of intercalation. Comparing the studied reaction parameters, the intercalation of kaolinite with urea, dimethyl sulfoxide, and N-methylformamide strongly depends on the aging temperature. Heating at slightly above room temperature (60 °C or 80 °C) makes it possible to complete the intercalation in a short time, while at room temperature the maximum intercalation can take ten times longer. In the case of formamide, the aging temperature has a weaker effect; the reaction rate constant of its intercalation did not increase significantly up to 50 °C.",
keywords = "Dimethyl sulfoxide, Formamide, Intercalation, Kaolinite, N-methylformamide, Urea",
author = "E. Mak{\'o} and Andr{\'a}s Kov{\'a}cs and T. Krist{\'o}f",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.clay.2019.105287",
language = "English",
volume = "182",
journal = "Applied Clay Science",
issn = "0169-1317",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Influencing parameters of direct homogenization intercalation of kaolinite with urea, dimethyl sulfoxide, formamide, and N-methylformamide

AU - Makó, E.

AU - Kovács, András

AU - Kristóf, T.

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - A detailed investigation of the influencing parameters of the homogenization intercalation method was carried out for a medium-defect kaolinite (Hinckley index = 0.8). The direct synthesis of kaolinite-urea, kaolinite-dimethyl sulfoxide, kaolinite-formamide, and kaolinite-N-methylformamide complexes was systematically studied and the effect of the reaction parameters was analyzed. The Avrami-Erofeev equation modified for diffusion was applied to describe the intercalation kinetics. The present study revealed that the homogenization method reduces the shortcomings of the conventional solution and mechanochemical methods. The homogenization method requires an order of magnitude lower amount of reagents, and results in low-defect complex structures identical to those obtained by the solution method, with a high degree of intercalation. Comparing the studied reaction parameters, the intercalation of kaolinite with urea, dimethyl sulfoxide, and N-methylformamide strongly depends on the aging temperature. Heating at slightly above room temperature (60 °C or 80 °C) makes it possible to complete the intercalation in a short time, while at room temperature the maximum intercalation can take ten times longer. In the case of formamide, the aging temperature has a weaker effect; the reaction rate constant of its intercalation did not increase significantly up to 50 °C.

AB - A detailed investigation of the influencing parameters of the homogenization intercalation method was carried out for a medium-defect kaolinite (Hinckley index = 0.8). The direct synthesis of kaolinite-urea, kaolinite-dimethyl sulfoxide, kaolinite-formamide, and kaolinite-N-methylformamide complexes was systematically studied and the effect of the reaction parameters was analyzed. The Avrami-Erofeev equation modified for diffusion was applied to describe the intercalation kinetics. The present study revealed that the homogenization method reduces the shortcomings of the conventional solution and mechanochemical methods. The homogenization method requires an order of magnitude lower amount of reagents, and results in low-defect complex structures identical to those obtained by the solution method, with a high degree of intercalation. Comparing the studied reaction parameters, the intercalation of kaolinite with urea, dimethyl sulfoxide, and N-methylformamide strongly depends on the aging temperature. Heating at slightly above room temperature (60 °C or 80 °C) makes it possible to complete the intercalation in a short time, while at room temperature the maximum intercalation can take ten times longer. In the case of formamide, the aging temperature has a weaker effect; the reaction rate constant of its intercalation did not increase significantly up to 50 °C.

KW - Dimethyl sulfoxide

KW - Formamide

KW - Intercalation

KW - Kaolinite

KW - N-methylformamide

KW - Urea

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071756052&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85071756052&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.clay.2019.105287

DO - 10.1016/j.clay.2019.105287

M3 - Article

VL - 182

JO - Applied Clay Science

JF - Applied Clay Science

SN - 0169-1317

M1 - 105287

ER -