Influence of the type of epoxy hardener on the structure and properties of interpenetrated vinyl ester/epoxy resins

O. Cryshchuk, J. Karger-Kocsis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The morphology-toughness relationship of vinyl ester/cycloaliphatic epoxy hybrid resins of interpenetrating network (IPN) structures was studied as a function of the epoxy hardening. The epoxy was crosslinked via polyaddition reactions (with aliphatic and cycloaliphatic diamines), cationic homopolymerization (via a boron trifluoride complex), and maleic anhydride. Maleic anhydride worked as a dual-phase crosslinking agent by favoring the formation of a grafted IPN structure between the vinyl ester and epoxy. The type of epoxy hardener strongly affected the IPN morphology and toughness. The toughness was assessed by linear elastic fracture mechanics, which determined the fracture toughness and energy. The more compact the IPN structure was, the lower the fracture energy was of the interpenetrated vinyl eater/epoxy formulations. This resulted in the following toughness ranking: aliphatic diamine > cycloaliphatic diamine > boron trifluoride complex ≥ maleic anhydride. For IPN characterization, the width of the entangling bands and the surface roughness parameters were considered. Their values were deduced from atomic force microscopy scans taken on ion-etched surfaces. More compact, less rough IPN-structured resins possessed lower toughness parameters than less compact, rougher structured ones. The latter were less compatible according to dynamic mechanical thermal and thermogravimetric analyses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5471-5481
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry
Volume42
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2004

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Epoxy Resins
Interpenetrating polymer networks
Epoxy resins
Esters
Toughness
Maleic Anhydrides
Diamines
Maleic anhydride
Fracture energy
Boron
Resins
Homopolymerization
Fracture mechanics
Crosslinking
Hardening
Fracture toughness
Atomic force microscopy
Surface roughness
Ions

Keywords

  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
  • Epoxy resin
  • Fracture mechanics
  • Inter-penetrating networks (IPN)
  • Structure-property relations
  • Vinyl ester resin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

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abstract = "The morphology-toughness relationship of vinyl ester/cycloaliphatic epoxy hybrid resins of interpenetrating network (IPN) structures was studied as a function of the epoxy hardening. The epoxy was crosslinked via polyaddition reactions (with aliphatic and cycloaliphatic diamines), cationic homopolymerization (via a boron trifluoride complex), and maleic anhydride. Maleic anhydride worked as a dual-phase crosslinking agent by favoring the formation of a grafted IPN structure between the vinyl ester and epoxy. The type of epoxy hardener strongly affected the IPN morphology and toughness. The toughness was assessed by linear elastic fracture mechanics, which determined the fracture toughness and energy. The more compact the IPN structure was, the lower the fracture energy was of the interpenetrated vinyl eater/epoxy formulations. This resulted in the following toughness ranking: aliphatic diamine > cycloaliphatic diamine > boron trifluoride complex ≥ maleic anhydride. For IPN characterization, the width of the entangling bands and the surface roughness parameters were considered. Their values were deduced from atomic force microscopy scans taken on ion-etched surfaces. More compact, less rough IPN-structured resins possessed lower toughness parameters than less compact, rougher structured ones. The latter were less compatible according to dynamic mechanical thermal and thermogravimetric analyses.",
keywords = "Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Epoxy resin, Fracture mechanics, Inter-penetrating networks (IPN), Structure-property relations, Vinyl ester resin",
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N2 - The morphology-toughness relationship of vinyl ester/cycloaliphatic epoxy hybrid resins of interpenetrating network (IPN) structures was studied as a function of the epoxy hardening. The epoxy was crosslinked via polyaddition reactions (with aliphatic and cycloaliphatic diamines), cationic homopolymerization (via a boron trifluoride complex), and maleic anhydride. Maleic anhydride worked as a dual-phase crosslinking agent by favoring the formation of a grafted IPN structure between the vinyl ester and epoxy. The type of epoxy hardener strongly affected the IPN morphology and toughness. The toughness was assessed by linear elastic fracture mechanics, which determined the fracture toughness and energy. The more compact the IPN structure was, the lower the fracture energy was of the interpenetrated vinyl eater/epoxy formulations. This resulted in the following toughness ranking: aliphatic diamine > cycloaliphatic diamine > boron trifluoride complex ≥ maleic anhydride. For IPN characterization, the width of the entangling bands and the surface roughness parameters were considered. Their values were deduced from atomic force microscopy scans taken on ion-etched surfaces. More compact, less rough IPN-structured resins possessed lower toughness parameters than less compact, rougher structured ones. The latter were less compatible according to dynamic mechanical thermal and thermogravimetric analyses.

AB - The morphology-toughness relationship of vinyl ester/cycloaliphatic epoxy hybrid resins of interpenetrating network (IPN) structures was studied as a function of the epoxy hardening. The epoxy was crosslinked via polyaddition reactions (with aliphatic and cycloaliphatic diamines), cationic homopolymerization (via a boron trifluoride complex), and maleic anhydride. Maleic anhydride worked as a dual-phase crosslinking agent by favoring the formation of a grafted IPN structure between the vinyl ester and epoxy. The type of epoxy hardener strongly affected the IPN morphology and toughness. The toughness was assessed by linear elastic fracture mechanics, which determined the fracture toughness and energy. The more compact the IPN structure was, the lower the fracture energy was of the interpenetrated vinyl eater/epoxy formulations. This resulted in the following toughness ranking: aliphatic diamine > cycloaliphatic diamine > boron trifluoride complex ≥ maleic anhydride. For IPN characterization, the width of the entangling bands and the surface roughness parameters were considered. Their values were deduced from atomic force microscopy scans taken on ion-etched surfaces. More compact, less rough IPN-structured resins possessed lower toughness parameters than less compact, rougher structured ones. The latter were less compatible according to dynamic mechanical thermal and thermogravimetric analyses.

KW - Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

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