The influence of the drying temperature and granulation liquid viscosity on the inter- and intragranular migration of a poorly water-soluble compound in a granulation mass and in a compact was quantitatively assessed. The intergranular migration kinetics were investigated by evaluating the drug distribution at different drying-time intervals. The results were analyzed by use of two-factor, three-level, face-centered, central composite designs. Riboflavin was mixed with α-lactose monohydrate 90 M and granulated with distilled water, except for the viscosity experiments in which an aqueous polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (Kollidon K90) solution was used. The wet granules were dried in a hot-air oven or compacted prior to drying. The drug concentration at different locations inside the granulated mass and the compacts after drying was determined spectrophotometrically and by use of diffuse light reflectance measurements. The riboflavin distribution in the granulation masses and in the compacts was characterized by drug-enriched outer layers and drug-depleted inner regions, indicating a strong migration phenomenon. It was clear that the drying temperature had no influence on the inter- and intragranular drug distribution. The intergranular migration was avoided using the PVP as a binder in the granulation liquid, whereas a minimal granulation liquid viscosity of 100 mPa · sec was necessary to avoid the intragranular migration. The diffuse light reflectance measurements can be used for the in-process control of granule samples containing low drug concentrations without the destruction of the samples.
- Experimental design
- Inter- and intragranular migration
- Tray-drying kinetics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science