Metal- and pesticide-tolerant biocontrol agents are preferred in integrated pest management, as such strains can be applied in combination with different pesticides. The Bacillus velezensis strain SZMC 6161J proved to be sensitive to copper, nickel, zinc, and cadmium, while manganese elevated its growth. At concentrations higher than 1 mmol L−1, zinc and iron inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of this strain. In addition, trypsin-like protease and palmitoyl esterase activities were insensitive to all tested heavy metals in the applied concentration range. We studied the effects of some widely used herbicides and fungicides on the growth of this strain. The presence of sulfonylurea herbicides, like bensulfuron-methyl, cinosulfuron, chlorsulfuron, ethoxysulfuron, triasulfuron, and primisulfuron-methyl strongly inhibited the biomass production of the strain even at the concentration of 6.25 mg L−1. Glyphosate also inhibited the growth above 30 mg L−1. Similarly, contact fungicides like captan, maneb, mancozeb, and thiram resulted in total inhibition at the concentration as low as 6.25 mg L−1. Interestingly, the sterol-biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicides imazalil, fenarimol, penconazole, and tebuconazole also proved to be potent inhibitors. Heavy metal- and fungicide-tolerant strains were isolated from the parental strain and their antagonistic abilities were evaluated. There was no substantial difference between the antagonism capability of wild-type strain and the resistant mutants.
- heavy metals
ASJC Scopus subject areas