Inflammatory mediators in the frontal lobe of patients with mixed and vascular dementia

Ezra Mulugeta, Francisco Molina-Holgado, Mark S. Elliott, Tibor Hortobagyi, Robert Perry, Rajesh N. Kalaria, Clive G. Ballard, Paul T. Francis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)


Vascular dementia (VaD) accounts for about 20% of all dementias, and vascular risk is a key factor in more than 40% of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about inflammatory processes in the brains of these individuals. We have examined inflammatory mediators (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor α) and chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein 1, monocyte chemo-attractant protein (MCP)-1 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in brain homogenates from grey and white matter of the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) from patients with VaD (n = 11), those with concurrent VaD and AD (mixed dementia; n = 8) and from age-matched controls (n = 13) using ELISA assays. We found a dramatic reduction of MCP-1 levels in the grey matter in VaD and mixed dementia in comparison to controls (55 and 66%, respectively). IL-6 decreases were also observed in the grey matter of VaD and mixed dementia (72 and 71%, respectively), with a more modest decrease (30%) in the white matter of patients with VaD or mixed dementia. In the first study to examine the status of inflammatory mediators in a brain region severely affected by white-matter lesions, our findings highlight - in contrast to previous reports in AD - that patients at the later stage of VaD or mixed dementia have a significantly attenuated neuro-inflammatory response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)278-286
Number of pages9
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2008


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Mixed dementia
  • Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines
  • Vascular dementia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Inflammatory mediators in the frontal lobe of patients with mixed and vascular dementia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Mulugeta, E., Molina-Holgado, F., Elliott, M. S., Hortobagyi, T., Perry, R., Kalaria, R. N., Ballard, C. G., & Francis, P. T. (2008). Inflammatory mediators in the frontal lobe of patients with mixed and vascular dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 25(3), 278-286.