Background. In a retrospective study we sought to dissect the factors associated with an increased occurrence of clinically significant perinephric fluid collections and lymphoceles among sirolimus-treated renal transplant recipients. Methods. We compared the incidence, predisposing factors, and consequences of these fluid collections among patients treated with sirolimus-cyclosporine (CsA)-prednisone (Pred) (n=354, group I) versus CsA-Pred with or without azathioprine (n= 136, group II). Results. More group I patients (135/354; 38.1%) displayed perinephric fluid collections (denoted as group III) then group II patients (24/136; 17.6%) (denoted as group IV) (P<0.001). In both subgroups the serum creatinine levels were elevated at the time of diagnosis from a nadir of 2.04±1.61 to 4.09±2.95 mg/dL (group III) and from 2.53±2.34 to 4.36±2.90 mg/dL (group IV). A significantly greater number of patients required treatment for lymphoceles among group I (56/354; 15.8%) versus group II recipients (6/136; 4.4%; P<0.001). Single or repeated percutaneous drainage procedures successfully treated 35 group I patients versus all 6 group IV patients (P=0.033). No patients in group II versus 21 patients in group I underwent surgical procedures (P<0.001). A significantly higher rate and higher histologic grade of acute rejection episodes, particularly proximate to the onset of the lymphocele, occurred among group IV patients, namely 54.2% (13/24) versus 21.4% (29/135) group III patients (P<0.001). Conclusions. Addition of sirolimus to a CsA-Pred regimen resulted in both a higher incidence and a requirement for more aggressive treatment of perinephric fluid collections and lymphoceles.
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