In situ investigation of stone heritage sites for conservation purposes: a case study of the Székesfehérvár Ruin Garden in Hungary

Magdalini Theodoridou, A. Török

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper demonstrates the application of in situ diagnostic tools to document stone heritage sites prior to conservation interventions using a Medieval ruin of Central Europe (Székesfehérvár, Hungary). The applied methods included lithological mapping and characterisation and mapping of decay forms as well as in situ measurements of physical parameters such as Schmidt hammer rebound, moisture content and micro-drilling resistance. The combination of these methods allowed the condition assessment of different lithotypes and demonstrated the role of micro-fabric, mineralogical composition and climatic conditions in stone durability. Differences were found in the properties and in the weathering forms of fine-grained and medium-grained porous oolitic limestone and travertine. The black crust observed in porous limestone is less prone to detachment on medium-grained oolitic limestone ashlars, while scaling was observed on fine-grained oolitic limestone blocks. The micro-drilling resistance of exposed porous limestone showed higher drilling resistance at the crust zone (upper 1–2 mm) than below, marking the upper cemented zone, while the drilling resistance of porous limestone under shelter showed an opposite trend. The shelly limestone, the sandy calcarenite and red compact limestone also showed an increase in drilling resistance at the topmost app. 2 mm zone. The applied in situ, non-invasive and micro-destructive techniques helped in the identification of endangered zones at Székesfehérvár, thus, they can provide key information on condition assessment of stones at heritage sites, where sampling is limited and preventive conservation is important. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Article number15
JournalProgress in Earth and Planetary Science
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2019

Fingerprint

garden
limestone
drilling
crust
calcarenite
lithotype
travertine
stone
in situ
Medieval
durability
shelter
in situ measurement
moisture content
weathering
sampling

Keywords

  • Built heritage
  • Conservation science
  • In situ evaluation
  • Mapping
  • Micro-drilling
  • Non-destructive techniques
  • Stone damage assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

Cite this

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title = "In situ investigation of stone heritage sites for conservation purposes: a case study of the Sz{\'e}kesfeh{\'e}rv{\'a}r Ruin Garden in Hungary",
abstract = "This paper demonstrates the application of in situ diagnostic tools to document stone heritage sites prior to conservation interventions using a Medieval ruin of Central Europe (Sz{\'e}kesfeh{\'e}rv{\'a}r, Hungary). The applied methods included lithological mapping and characterisation and mapping of decay forms as well as in situ measurements of physical parameters such as Schmidt hammer rebound, moisture content and micro-drilling resistance. The combination of these methods allowed the condition assessment of different lithotypes and demonstrated the role of micro-fabric, mineralogical composition and climatic conditions in stone durability. Differences were found in the properties and in the weathering forms of fine-grained and medium-grained porous oolitic limestone and travertine. The black crust observed in porous limestone is less prone to detachment on medium-grained oolitic limestone ashlars, while scaling was observed on fine-grained oolitic limestone blocks. The micro-drilling resistance of exposed porous limestone showed higher drilling resistance at the crust zone (upper 1–2 mm) than below, marking the upper cemented zone, while the drilling resistance of porous limestone under shelter showed an opposite trend. The shelly limestone, the sandy calcarenite and red compact limestone also showed an increase in drilling resistance at the topmost app. 2 mm zone. The applied in situ, non-invasive and micro-destructive techniques helped in the identification of endangered zones at Sz{\'e}kesfeh{\'e}rv{\'a}r, thus, they can provide key information on condition assessment of stones at heritage sites, where sampling is limited and preventive conservation is important. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].",
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N2 - This paper demonstrates the application of in situ diagnostic tools to document stone heritage sites prior to conservation interventions using a Medieval ruin of Central Europe (Székesfehérvár, Hungary). The applied methods included lithological mapping and characterisation and mapping of decay forms as well as in situ measurements of physical parameters such as Schmidt hammer rebound, moisture content and micro-drilling resistance. The combination of these methods allowed the condition assessment of different lithotypes and demonstrated the role of micro-fabric, mineralogical composition and climatic conditions in stone durability. Differences were found in the properties and in the weathering forms of fine-grained and medium-grained porous oolitic limestone and travertine. The black crust observed in porous limestone is less prone to detachment on medium-grained oolitic limestone ashlars, while scaling was observed on fine-grained oolitic limestone blocks. The micro-drilling resistance of exposed porous limestone showed higher drilling resistance at the crust zone (upper 1–2 mm) than below, marking the upper cemented zone, while the drilling resistance of porous limestone under shelter showed an opposite trend. The shelly limestone, the sandy calcarenite and red compact limestone also showed an increase in drilling resistance at the topmost app. 2 mm zone. The applied in situ, non-invasive and micro-destructive techniques helped in the identification of endangered zones at Székesfehérvár, thus, they can provide key information on condition assessment of stones at heritage sites, where sampling is limited and preventive conservation is important. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

AB - This paper demonstrates the application of in situ diagnostic tools to document stone heritage sites prior to conservation interventions using a Medieval ruin of Central Europe (Székesfehérvár, Hungary). The applied methods included lithological mapping and characterisation and mapping of decay forms as well as in situ measurements of physical parameters such as Schmidt hammer rebound, moisture content and micro-drilling resistance. The combination of these methods allowed the condition assessment of different lithotypes and demonstrated the role of micro-fabric, mineralogical composition and climatic conditions in stone durability. Differences were found in the properties and in the weathering forms of fine-grained and medium-grained porous oolitic limestone and travertine. The black crust observed in porous limestone is less prone to detachment on medium-grained oolitic limestone ashlars, while scaling was observed on fine-grained oolitic limestone blocks. The micro-drilling resistance of exposed porous limestone showed higher drilling resistance at the crust zone (upper 1–2 mm) than below, marking the upper cemented zone, while the drilling resistance of porous limestone under shelter showed an opposite trend. The shelly limestone, the sandy calcarenite and red compact limestone also showed an increase in drilling resistance at the topmost app. 2 mm zone. The applied in situ, non-invasive and micro-destructive techniques helped in the identification of endangered zones at Székesfehérvár, thus, they can provide key information on condition assessment of stones at heritage sites, where sampling is limited and preventive conservation is important. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

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