In situ and real-time measurements are increasingly used in environmental monitoring and control to enhance the efficacy of decision-making in environmental management. In situ measurement techniques enjoy high priority in surface water and wastewater management, particularly in contaminated or otherwise endangered water and land investigations. Real-time measurement methods in particular are employed in water management and global earth monitoring systems. The in situ measurements and associated telecommunication, along with the local and worldwide network technologies, make early warning and automation possible. Only in situ, real-time measuring methods can fulfill the requirements of environmental regulations worldwide to ensure good quality air and water, healthy agricultural products and a sustainable ecosystem. In situ sensors that provide real-time output data are a rapidly developing field with hundreds of innovations and applications. The number and quality of the commercial products has also shown a significant increase in recent years. This chapter categorizes in situ and real-time water monitoring measurement techniques as geophysical, geochemical, chemical analytical, biological, ecological and ecotoxicological methods. The fields of application cover surface waters and oceans, drinking water and wastewaters. Rapid methods, field equipment and portable devices are discussed starting from the simplest test papers and visual observations to the most advanced sensor techniques. The soil and solid waste measurement and test methods are discussed in Chapter 4. An automated continuous monitoring device for measuring toxic element concentrations in surface-, ground- and wastewaters is also introduced and its use demonstrated.
|Title of host publication||Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management -3|
|Subtitle of host publication||Site Assessment and Monitoring Tools|
|Number of pages||64|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2017|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science(all)
- Chemical Engineering(all)