### Abstract

The sine wave test of an ADC means to excite the ADC with a pure sine wave, look for the sine wave which best fits the output in least squares sense, and analyze the difference. This is described in the IEEE standards 1241-2000 and 1057-1994. Least squares is the 'best' fitting method most of us can imagine, and it yields very good results indeed. Its known properties are achieved when the error (the deviation of the samples from the true sine wave) is random, white (the error samples are all independent), with zero mean Gaussian distribution. Then the LS fit coincides with the maximum likelihood estimate of the parameters. However, in sine wave testing of ADC's these assumptions are far from being true. The quantization error is partly deterministic, and the sample values are strongly interdependent. This makes the sine fit worse than expected, and since small changes in the sine wave affect the residuals significantly, especially close to the peaks, ADC error analysis may become misleading. Processing of the residuals (e.g. the calculation of the effective number of bits, ENOB) can exhibit serious errors. This paper describes this phenomenon, analyses its consequences, and suggests modified processing of samples and residuals to reduce the errors to negligible level.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 829-834 |

Number of pages | 6 |

Journal | Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference |

Volume | 2 |

Publication status | Published - Oct 8 2004 |

Event | Proceedings of the 21st IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, IMTC/04 - Como, Italy Duration: May 18 2004 → May 20 2004 |

### Keywords

- ADC test
- Analog-to-digtial converter
- Effective number of bits
- ENOB
- IEEE Standard 1057-1994
- IEEE Standard 1241-2000
- Least squares
- Sine wave fitting

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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## Cite this

*Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference*,

*2*, 829-834.