Cd2+-induced oxidative stress and its effects on the expression of stress biomarkers and on macromolecule damage in the skin and blood of common carp were studied. Both tissues play important roles in the defence mechanisms against external hazards, serving as an anatomical barrier and as connecting tissue between the organs. In the skin, the production of peroxynitrite anion and hydrogen peroxide was almost doubled after exposure to 10 mg/L Cd2+. The accumulation of these oxidant molecules suggests an intensive production of superoxide anion and nitrogen monoxide and the development of oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. Although the metallothioneins and the components of the glutathione redox system were activated in the skin, the accumulation of reactive intermediates led to the enhanced damage of lipid molecules after 24 h of metal exposure. In the blood, the basal levels of metallothionein messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were 2–2.5-fold of that measured in the skin. This high level of metallothionein expression could be the reason that the blood was less affected by an acute Cd2+ challenge and the metallothionein and glutathione systems were not activated.
- Nitrosative stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis