The purpose of the study was to identify breast cancer subtypes by immunohistochemistry likely to respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to analyze the used chemotherapy regimen and the range of response rates. Analysis of a collected database was performed. Ninety-two patients were identified in our files who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 1998 and 2009. We used immunohistochemical profiles (ER, PgR, HER2, Ki-67 and p53) of NCB, FNAB and surgical breast specimens to subclassify the tumors. Pathological response rates were assessed following surgical removal of tumors by using the Chevallier classification. DFS and OS was measured in 88 cases from the date of definitive surgery to the date of last follow-up or death. Pathological complete or near-complete remission (pCR = Chevallier I and II) was observed in 13 of 92 cases (14.1%). According to the preoperative characteristics of the 13 tumors achieving pCR, 9 of the cases were triple negative, one of 13 was ER-/HER2+ and three of 13 ER+/HER2+. Twenty-four of 92 patients received taxane based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 30 of 92 anthracyclin based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 33 of 92 taxane + anthracyclin regimen and 2 of 92 CMF regimen. In the taxane treated group of patients the pCR rate was 29.1%, in the anthracyclin group 6.6% and in the taxane + anthracyclin treated group 12.1%. Concerning DFS, significant difference was observed between the Chevallier III and IV groups (p=0.006), and less events were observed in the pCR group (not significant). pCR was associated with significantly better OS (p=0.050). It seems that even limited, routinely used immunohistochemical profiling of tumors is able to predict the likelihood of pCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with triple negative and HER2-positive cancers are likely to achieve pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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