Identification of a Novel growth factor-like lipid, 1-O-cis-alk-1'enyl- 2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (Alkenyl-GP) that is present in commercial sphingolipid preparations

K. Liliom, David J. Fischer, Tamás Virág, Guoping Sun, Duane D. Miller, Jih Lie Tseng, Dominic M. Desiderio, Michael C. Seidel, James R. Erickson, Gábor Tigyi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lysophosphatidic acid, a member of the acidic phospholipid autacoid (APA) family of lipid mediators, elicits diverse cellular effects that range from mitogenesis to the prevention of programmed cell death. Sphingosine 1- phosphate and sphingosylphosphorylcholine have also been proposed to be ligands of the APA receptors. However, key observations that provide the foundation of this hypothesis have not been universally reproducible, leading to a controversy in the field. We provide evidence that 1-O-cis-alk-1'-enyl- 2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (Alkenyl-GP) is present in some commercial sphingolipid preparations and is responsible for many of their APA-like effects, which were previously attributed to sphingosylphosphorylcholine. Alkenyl-GP was generated by acidic and basic methanolysis from ethanolamine lysoplasmalogen, which was present in the sphingomyelin fraction that is used to manufacture sphingosylphosphorylcholine. We present the structural identification of alkenyl-GP, using 1H and 13C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. Alkenyl-GP was a potent activator of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and elicited a mitogenic response in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. In contrast, sphingosylphosphorylcholine at a concentration of 10 μM was only a weak mitogen and only weakly activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases. Alkenyl-GP has recently been detected as an injury-induced component in the anterior chamber of the eye (Liliom, K., Guan, Z., Tseng, H., Desiderio, D. M., Tigyi, G., and Watsky, M. (1998) Am. J. Physiol. 274, C1065-C1074), indicating that this lipid is a naturally occurring member of the APA mediator family.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13461-13468
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume273
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 29 1998

Fingerprint

Sphingolipids
Autacoids
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Phospholipids
Lipids
Ethanolamine
Sphingomyelins
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Anterior Chamber
Cell death
Fourier Analysis
Fibroblasts
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Mitogens
Protein Kinases
Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry
Mass Spectrometry
Spectrum Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Identification of a Novel growth factor-like lipid, 1-O-cis-alk-1'enyl- 2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (Alkenyl-GP) that is present in commercial sphingolipid preparations. / Liliom, K.; Fischer, David J.; Virág, Tamás; Sun, Guoping; Miller, Duane D.; Tseng, Jih Lie; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Seidel, Michael C.; Erickson, James R.; Tigyi, Gábor.

In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 273, No. 22, 29.05.1998, p. 13461-13468.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liliom, K. ; Fischer, David J. ; Virág, Tamás ; Sun, Guoping ; Miller, Duane D. ; Tseng, Jih Lie ; Desiderio, Dominic M. ; Seidel, Michael C. ; Erickson, James R. ; Tigyi, Gábor. / Identification of a Novel growth factor-like lipid, 1-O-cis-alk-1'enyl- 2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (Alkenyl-GP) that is present in commercial sphingolipid preparations. In: Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1998 ; Vol. 273, No. 22. pp. 13461-13468.
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abstract = "Lysophosphatidic acid, a member of the acidic phospholipid autacoid (APA) family of lipid mediators, elicits diverse cellular effects that range from mitogenesis to the prevention of programmed cell death. Sphingosine 1- phosphate and sphingosylphosphorylcholine have also been proposed to be ligands of the APA receptors. However, key observations that provide the foundation of this hypothesis have not been universally reproducible, leading to a controversy in the field. We provide evidence that 1-O-cis-alk-1'-enyl- 2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (Alkenyl-GP) is present in some commercial sphingolipid preparations and is responsible for many of their APA-like effects, which were previously attributed to sphingosylphosphorylcholine. Alkenyl-GP was generated by acidic and basic methanolysis from ethanolamine lysoplasmalogen, which was present in the sphingomyelin fraction that is used to manufacture sphingosylphosphorylcholine. We present the structural identification of alkenyl-GP, using 1H and 13C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. Alkenyl-GP was a potent activator of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and elicited a mitogenic response in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. In contrast, sphingosylphosphorylcholine at a concentration of 10 μM was only a weak mitogen and only weakly activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases. Alkenyl-GP has recently been detected as an injury-induced component in the anterior chamber of the eye (Liliom, K., Guan, Z., Tseng, H., Desiderio, D. M., Tigyi, G., and Watsky, M. (1998) Am. J. Physiol. 274, C1065-C1074), indicating that this lipid is a naturally occurring member of the APA mediator family.",
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AU - Liliom, K.

AU - Fischer, David J.

AU - Virág, Tamás

AU - Sun, Guoping

AU - Miller, Duane D.

AU - Tseng, Jih Lie

AU - Desiderio, Dominic M.

AU - Seidel, Michael C.

AU - Erickson, James R.

AU - Tigyi, Gábor

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N2 - Lysophosphatidic acid, a member of the acidic phospholipid autacoid (APA) family of lipid mediators, elicits diverse cellular effects that range from mitogenesis to the prevention of programmed cell death. Sphingosine 1- phosphate and sphingosylphosphorylcholine have also been proposed to be ligands of the APA receptors. However, key observations that provide the foundation of this hypothesis have not been universally reproducible, leading to a controversy in the field. We provide evidence that 1-O-cis-alk-1'-enyl- 2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (Alkenyl-GP) is present in some commercial sphingolipid preparations and is responsible for many of their APA-like effects, which were previously attributed to sphingosylphosphorylcholine. Alkenyl-GP was generated by acidic and basic methanolysis from ethanolamine lysoplasmalogen, which was present in the sphingomyelin fraction that is used to manufacture sphingosylphosphorylcholine. We present the structural identification of alkenyl-GP, using 1H and 13C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. Alkenyl-GP was a potent activator of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and elicited a mitogenic response in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. In contrast, sphingosylphosphorylcholine at a concentration of 10 μM was only a weak mitogen and only weakly activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases. Alkenyl-GP has recently been detected as an injury-induced component in the anterior chamber of the eye (Liliom, K., Guan, Z., Tseng, H., Desiderio, D. M., Tigyi, G., and Watsky, M. (1998) Am. J. Physiol. 274, C1065-C1074), indicating that this lipid is a naturally occurring member of the APA mediator family.

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