Identification and quantification of the constituents of madder root by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography

I. Boldizsár, Z. Szucs, Zs Füzfai, I. Molnár-Perl

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57 Citations (Scopus)


The possibilities in the identification and quantitation of the constituents of Rubia tinctorum L.'s root, called also madder root, was described and compared by gas chromatography (GC)-MS, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV/photodiode array detection (DAD) and HPLC-MS: chromatographic analyses were carried out in parallel, from the same samples/extracts/hydrolyzates. Anthraquinone glycosides, anthraquinones, carboxylic acids and sugars were determined directly in the presence of the matrix and in its extracts without and subsequently to hydrolyses. Hydrolyses were performed as a function of time, with hydrochloric and trifluoroacetic acids, as well as enzymatically. Data revealed that as hydrolyzing agent trifluoroacetic acid is to be preferred. Madder root's anthraquinones (pseudopurpurin/purpurin, alizarin, lucidin, munjistin, nordamnacanthal) were identified on the basis of their absorption spectra (HPLC-DAD) and fragmentation patterns by GC-MS and HPLC-MS, equally. Reproducibility of anthraquinone's quantitation, by HPLC-DAD and GC-MS, in the concentration ranges of 4 × 10-5 to 3 × 10-2 g/g dried sample, provided an average reproducibility of 4.2% (varying between 0.9 and 9.4% relative standard deviation (RSD percentages)). Carboxylic acids (malic, citric, quinic, rosmarinic acids) and saccharides (xylose, ribose, fructose, glucose, sucrose, primverose) were quantified as their trimethylsilyl (oxime) ether/ester derivatives by GC-MS, in the concentration ranges of 10-5 g to 10-2 g/g dried sample, with an average reproducibility of 4.7% RSD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-274
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Nov 10 2006


  • Anthraquinone glycosides
  • Anthraquinones
  • Carboxylic acids
  • Chromatography
  • Extraction
  • Hydrolysis
  • Madder root's analysis
  • Sugars

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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