Identification and characterization of fine and coarse particulate matter sources in a middle-European urban environment

Zs Kertész, Z. Szoboszlai, A. Angyal, E. Dobos, I. Borbély-Kiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)


In this work a source apportionment study is presented which aimed to characterize the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 sources in the urban area of Debrecen, East-Hungary by using streaker samples, IBA methods and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Samples of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) urban particulate matter were collected with 2 h time resolution in the frame of five sampling campaigns during 2007-2009 in different seasons in the downtown of Debrecen. Elemental concentrations from Al to Pb of over 1000 samples were obtained by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE); concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined with a smoke stain reflectometer. On this data base source apportionment was carried out by using the PMF method. Seven factors were identified for both size fractions, including soil dust, traffic, secondary aerosol - sulphates, domestic heating, oil combustion, agriculture and an unknown factor enriched with chlorine. Seasonal and daily variation of the different factors was studied as well as their dependence on meteorological parameters. Besides determining the time patterns characteristic to the city, several emission episodes were identified including a Saharan dust intrusion on 21st-24th May, 2008.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1924-1928
Number of pages5
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Issue number11-12
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2010



  • Atmospheric aerosol
  • PIXE
  • PM
  • PM
  • PMF receptor modelling
  • Source apportionment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

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