Hypoglycemia-Related Hospitalizations and Mortality Among Patients With Diabetes Transitioning to Dialysis

Connie M. Rhee, Csaba P. Kovesdy, Amy S. You, John J. Sim, Melissa Soohoo, Elani Streja, M. Molnár, Alpesh N. Amin, Kevin Abbott, Danh V. Nguyen, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rationale & Objective: Diabetic patients with declining kidney function are at heightened risk for hypoglycemia. We sought to determine whether hypoglycemia-related hospitalizations in the interval before dialysis therapy initiation are associated with post–end-stage renal disease (ESRD) mortality among incident patients with ESRD with diabetes. Study Design: Observational cohort study. Setting & Participants: US veterans from the national Veterans Affairs database with diabetes and chronic kidney disease transitioning to dialysis therapy from October 2007 to September 2011. Exposure: Hypoglycemia-related hospitalizations during the pre-ESRD period and antidiabetic medication regimens. Outcome: The outcome of post-ESRD all-cause mortality was evaluated relative to pre-ESRD hypoglycemia. The outcome of pre-ESRD hypoglycemia-related hospitalization was evaluated relative to antidiabetic medication regimens. Analytic Approach: We examined whether the occurrence and frequency of pre-ESRD hypoglycemia-related hospitalizations are associated with post-ESRD mortality using Cox regression models adjusted for case-mix covariates. In a subcohort of patients prescribed 0 to 2 oral antidiabetic drugs and/or insulin, we examined the 12 most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication regimens and risk for pre-ESRD hypoglycemia-related hospitalization using logistic regression models adjusted for case-mix covariates. Results: Among 30,156 patients who met eligibility criteria, the occurrence of pre-ESRD hypoglycemia-related hospitalization(s) was associated with higher post-ESRD mortality risk: adjusted HR (aHR), 1.25; 95% CI, 1.17-1.34 (reference group: no hypoglycemia hospitalization). Increasing frequency of hypoglycemia-related hospitalizations was independently associated with incrementally higher mortality risk: aHRs of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12-1.30), 1.47 (95% CI, 1.19-1.82), and 2.07 (95% CI, 1.46-2.95) for 1, 2, and 3 or more hypoglycemia-related hospitalizations, respectively (reference group: no hypoglycemia hospitalization). Compared with patients who were prescribed neither oral antidiabetic drugs nor insulin, medication regimens that included sulfonylureas and/or insulin were associated with higher risk for hypoglycemia. Limitations: Residual confounding cannot be excluded. Conclusions: Among incident patients with ESRD with diabetes, a dose-dependent relationship between frequency of pre-ESRD hypoglycemia-related hospitalizations and post-ESRD mortality was observed. Further study of diabetic management strategies that prevent hypoglycemia as patients with chronic kidney disease transition to ESRD are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Keywords

  • antidiabetic medications
  • chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • CKD-to-ESRD transition
  • diabetes
  • dialysis initiation
  • end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
  • hospitalization
  • Hypoglycemia
  • incident ESRD
  • mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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    Rhee, C. M., Kovesdy, C. P., You, A. S., Sim, J. J., Soohoo, M., Streja, E., Molnár, M., Amin, A. N., Abbott, K., Nguyen, D. V., & Kalantar-Zadeh, K. (Accepted/In press). Hypoglycemia-Related Hospitalizations and Mortality Among Patients With Diabetes Transitioning to Dialysis. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.04.022