We analyzed the pathogenesis-related generation of H2O2 using the microscopic detection of 3,3-diaminobenzidine polymerization in near-isogenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines carrying different powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) resistance genes, and in a line expressing chemically activated resistance after treatment with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (DCINA). Hypersensitive cell death in Mla12 and Mlg genotypes or after chemical activation by DCINA was associated with H2O2, accumulation throughout attacked cells. Formation of cell wall appositions (papillae) mediated in Mlg and Mlo5 genotypes and in DCINA-activated plants was paralleled by H2O2 accumulation in effective papillae and in cytosolic vesicles of up to 2 μm in diameter near the papillae. H2O2 was not detected in ineffective papillae of cells that had been successfully penetrated by the fungus. These findings support the hypothesis that H2O2 may play a substantial role in plant defense against the powdery mildew fungus. We did not detect any accumulation of salicylic acid in primary leaves after inoculation of the different barley genotypes, indicating that these defense responses neither relied on nor provoked salicylic acid accumulation in barley.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science