Among 527 MRI examinations of patients with a suspicion of epilepsy in 5 years, we found 32 cases of hippocampal malrotation (HIMAL). The characteristic features are: incomplete inversion of the hippocampus with and abnormally round shape; unilateral involvement of the whole hippocampus; normal signal intensity and size; blurred internal structure; an abnormal angle of collateral sulcus; abnormal position and size of the fornix; normal size of the temporal lobe; enlargement and particular configuration of the temporal horn, typical of corpus callosum agenesis; and a normal corpus callosum. In 7 cases (22%) HIMAL occurred together with developmental disorders. It was predominantly seen in men. The clinical features were varied. Based on some MRI features, the presence of developmental disorders, the male predominance, the frequently positive family history, and a review of the literature, we think HIMAL may be the consequence of a mild hemisphere developmental disorder. It is probably not the basic cause of epilepsy in such varied clinical setting, but may be a sign of a developmental disorder and can help in selecting patients for more meticulous investigation. It also may give some new understanding of brain development.
- Brain, development
- Magnetic resonance imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine