Hepatitis C virus infection causes approximately 4 million new infections worldwide, and 399 000 deaths due to its complications, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Microenvironmental changes, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by HCV infection, via genetic and epigenetic changes can result in primary liver cancer during decades. The direct oncogenic property of HCV is wellknown. The transforming effect of four HCV proteins (core, NS3, NS4B, NS5A) has been proven. Effective antiviral therapy, sustained viral response decreases the HCV-related general and liver-related mortality. Interferon-based therapy reduces the risk of HCC development. Shorter therapy with direct acting antiviral agents (DAA) has higher efficacy, fewer side-effects. Publications have reported the unexpected effects of DAA. The authors review the articles focusing on the occurrence of HCC in connection with DAA therapies. There is a need for prospective, multicentric studies with longer follow-up to examine the risk of HCC formation. After antiviral therapy, HCC surveillance is of high importance which means abdominal ultrasound every 3-6-12 months in sustained viral response patients as well.
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