Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation via TGF-β

Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, G. Szabó

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background & Aims: Monocyte and macrophage (MΦ) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MΦs and monocytes recruited as precursors of MΦs into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MΦs in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7.5/JFH-1]) induce monocyte differentiation into polarized MΦs. Methods: Healthy human monocytes were co-cultured with Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells or cell-free virus for 7 days and analyzed for MΦ markers and cytokine levels. A similar analysis was performed on circulating monocytes and liver MΦs from HCV-infected patients and controls. Results: Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells induced monocytes to differentiate into MΦs with increased expression of CD14 and CD68. HCV-MΦs showed M2 surface markers (CD206, CD163, and Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)) and produced both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. HCV-induced early interleukin 1β production promoted transforming growth factor (TGF)β production and MΦ polarization to an M2 phenotype. TGF-β secreted by M2-MΦ led to hepatic stellate cell activation indicated by increased expression of collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, and α-smooth muscle actin. In vivo, we observed a significant increase in M2 marker (CD206) expression on circulating monocytes and in the liver of chronic HCV-infected patients. Furthermore, we observed the presence of a unique collagen-expressing CD14+CD206+ monocyte population in HCV patients that correlated with liver fibrosis. Conclusions: We show an important role for HCV in induction of monocyte differentiation into MΦs with a mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile and M2 surface phenotype that promote stellate cell activation via TGF-β. We also identified circulating monocytes expressing M2 marker and collagen in chronic HCV infection that can be explored as a biomarker.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)302-316.e8
JournalCMGH Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2016

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Transforming Growth Factors
Hepacivirus
Monocytes
Macrophages
Chronic Hepatitis C
Collagen
Liver
Virus Diseases
Cytokines
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Phenotype
Virus Activation
Hepatic Stellate Cells
Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
Macrophage Activation
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Interleukin-1
Liver Cirrhosis
Dendritic Cells
Hepatitis

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • CD206
  • Collagen
  • Fibrocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation via TGF-β. / Saha, Banishree; Kodys, Karen; Szabó, G.

In: CMGH Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 01.05.2016, p. 302-316.e8.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Background & Aims: Monocyte and macrophage (MΦ) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MΦs and monocytes recruited as precursors of MΦs into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MΦs in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7.5/JFH-1]) induce monocyte differentiation into polarized MΦs. Methods: Healthy human monocytes were co-cultured with Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells or cell-free virus for 7 days and analyzed for MΦ markers and cytokine levels. A similar analysis was performed on circulating monocytes and liver MΦs from HCV-infected patients and controls. Results: Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells induced monocytes to differentiate into MΦs with increased expression of CD14 and CD68. HCV-MΦs showed M2 surface markers (CD206, CD163, and Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)) and produced both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. HCV-induced early interleukin 1β production promoted transforming growth factor (TGF)β production and MΦ polarization to an M2 phenotype. TGF-β secreted by M2-MΦ led to hepatic stellate cell activation indicated by increased expression of collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, and α-smooth muscle actin. In vivo, we observed a significant increase in M2 marker (CD206) expression on circulating monocytes and in the liver of chronic HCV-infected patients. Furthermore, we observed the presence of a unique collagen-expressing CD14+CD206+ monocyte population in HCV patients that correlated with liver fibrosis. Conclusions: We show an important role for HCV in induction of monocyte differentiation into MΦs with a mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile and M2 surface phenotype that promote stellate cell activation via TGF-β. We also identified circulating monocytes expressing M2 marker and collagen in chronic HCV infection that can be explored as a biomarker.

AB - Background & Aims: Monocyte and macrophage (MΦ) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MΦs and monocytes recruited as precursors of MΦs into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MΦs in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7.5/JFH-1]) induce monocyte differentiation into polarized MΦs. Methods: Healthy human monocytes were co-cultured with Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells or cell-free virus for 7 days and analyzed for MΦ markers and cytokine levels. A similar analysis was performed on circulating monocytes and liver MΦs from HCV-infected patients and controls. Results: Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells induced monocytes to differentiate into MΦs with increased expression of CD14 and CD68. HCV-MΦs showed M2 surface markers (CD206, CD163, and Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)) and produced both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. HCV-induced early interleukin 1β production promoted transforming growth factor (TGF)β production and MΦ polarization to an M2 phenotype. TGF-β secreted by M2-MΦ led to hepatic stellate cell activation indicated by increased expression of collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, and α-smooth muscle actin. In vivo, we observed a significant increase in M2 marker (CD206) expression on circulating monocytes and in the liver of chronic HCV-infected patients. Furthermore, we observed the presence of a unique collagen-expressing CD14+CD206+ monocyte population in HCV patients that correlated with liver fibrosis. Conclusions: We show an important role for HCV in induction of monocyte differentiation into MΦs with a mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile and M2 surface phenotype that promote stellate cell activation via TGF-β. We also identified circulating monocytes expressing M2 marker and collagen in chronic HCV infection that can be explored as a biomarker.

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