About 170 million individuals can be found with chronic hepatitis C viral infection all over the world. The occurence of depression is more frequent among the persons than in the healthy population, this depression can be found in 58 per cent of patients with chronic hepatitis C. On the basis of the literature the authors review the aetiology of depression in liver diseases, examining the neuropathogenic effect of HCV. They demonstrate the scientific results which are evidences of hepatitis C viral infection for the alterations in the central nerve system. The depression is one of the side effects of the alpha-interferon treatment used in the therapy of HCV. The authors demonstrate the biological basis, development, consequences of depression produced by interferon and they give a review of the protocol in the diagnostic procedure of a patient with depression. They summerize the steps of psychiatric drug therapy in chronic liver diseases. That is also important whether the chronic HCV infected patient with depression can be treated with interferon. The loss of interferon treatment can lead to the fatal outcome of liver disease. In order to have the correct decision a collaboration between internist and psychiatric specialist is necessary.
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