The current study assesses the characteristics and outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, treated with novel agents for hematogenous extramedullary (HEMM) relapse. Consecutive patients diagnosed with HEMM between 2010-2018 were included. Patients' characteristics at diagnosis and at HEMM presentation, response to treatment, survival and factors predicting survival were recorded and analyzed. A group of 127 patients, all diagnosed with HEMM by imaging (87.3%) and/or biopsy (79%), were included. Of those, 44% were initially diagnosed with ISS3, 57% presented with plasmacytomas, and 30% had high-risk cytogenetics. Median time to HEMM was 32 months. In multivariate analysis, ISS3 and bone plasmacytoma predicted shorter time to HEMM (P =.005 and P =.008, respectively). Upfront autograft was associated with longer time to HEMM (P =.002). At HEMM, 32% of patients had no BM plasmacytosis, 20% had non-secretory disease and 43% had light-chain disease. Multiple HEMM sites were reported in 52% of patients, mostly involving soft tissue, skin (29%), and pleura/lung (25%). First treatment for HEMM included proteasome inhibitors (50%), immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) (39%), monoclonal antibodies (10%), and chemotherapy (53%). Overall response rate (ORR) was 57%. IMiDs were associated with higher ORR (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.02-4.7, P =.04). Median survival from HEMM was 6 months (CI 95% 4.8-7.2). Failure to achieve ≥VGPR was the only significant factor for worse OS in multivariate analyses (HR = 9.87, CI 95% 2.35 - 39, P =.001). In conclusion, HEMM occurs within 3 years of initial myeloma diagnosis and is associated with dismal outcome. The IMiDs might provide a higher response rate, and achievement of ≥VGPR predicts longer survival.
ASJC Scopus subject areas