Heavy metal dispersion detected in soils and plants alongside roads in Hungary

Péter Dániel, B. Kovács, József Prokisch, Z. Gyóri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Soil and plant samples from roadside areas contaminated with toxic by-products of vehicular traffic (for example, lead compounds from leaded fuel, metal contaminants derived from spare parts) were analysed in the case of five Hungarian sampling sites. The analyses were carried out with a new analytical method which is based on the use of a high performance sample introduction unit in the conventional ICP spectrometry. By using this system, significantly lower detection limits were obtained related to the conventional ICP-AES method. The analysis results showed a close correlation between the daily mean volume of traffic and metals accumulated in the soil samples. On the other hand, using this method similar heavy metal profiles were gained, i.e. the total and plant-available heavy metal concentrations were the highest in the 0-1 m region from the road, and the further sampling points (0-90 m) showed significantly lower and lower heavy metal contents until at about 90 m distance from the road, where heavy metal contamination reached such a low value that can be considered to be the environmental background level. A similar trend was also recognised in plants; the plants very near to the road surface accumulated very high amounts of lead, cadmium and other heavy metals derived from vehicular traffic. The results revealed different behaviours of contaminants in different conditions inside the roadside areas (soil pH and heavy metal content, species and abundance of flora at the different sampling points, etc.). For example, total and available concentrations were apparently low only in one sampling site where each sampling point of the cross-section showed acid soil medium. Generally, acid pH means higher mobility of heavy metals, which was verified in our study too, as low concentrations in soil are associated with high accumulation factors in plants. Both single- and two-factor ANOVA results showed that total and available lead contents were not significantly different between sampling sites, therefore they were considered as traffic as the main contaminating source produced near the same lead content in different conditions. Single-factor ANOVAs showed significant differences, meanwhile two-factor ANOVAs did not show significant differences among mean lead contents detected in plants sampled in the five sites. These different results for lead showed that with the increase of variables (from one to two factors) the mathematical differences between lead contents became less and less significant. It calls for paying attention to the evaluation of bioindication and requires use of all the available variables in order to gain precise results from sampled areas. Some plants such as Echinocloa crus-galli, Clematis recta, Artemisia vulgaris, Crepis biennis, Portulaca oleracea and Lathyrus pratensis were found to be good indicators, as they accumulated three or four different heavy metals in high concentrations. In addition to their sensitive indicating ability, the majority of these plants are weeds of cereals in arable lands, and so are easily available in roadside areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-93
Number of pages11
JournalChemical Speciation and Bioavailability
Volume9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1997

Fingerprint

Hungary
Heavy Metals
Heavy metals
Soil
heavy metal
road
Soils
Lead
Sampling
Roadsides
sampling
soil
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of Variance
Clematis
Crepis
Portulaca
Plant Weeds
Metal fuels
Metals

Keywords

  • Contamination
  • Heavy metals
  • HHPN-ICP
  • Leaded fuel
  • Roadside area
  • Soil-plant relationship

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Heavy metal dispersion detected in soils and plants alongside roads in Hungary. / Dániel, Péter; Kovács, B.; Prokisch, József; Gyóri, Z.

In: Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997, p. 83-93.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{0e3692c96cba4b6b9cc648706270ed22,
title = "Heavy metal dispersion detected in soils and plants alongside roads in Hungary",
abstract = "Soil and plant samples from roadside areas contaminated with toxic by-products of vehicular traffic (for example, lead compounds from leaded fuel, metal contaminants derived from spare parts) were analysed in the case of five Hungarian sampling sites. The analyses were carried out with a new analytical method which is based on the use of a high performance sample introduction unit in the conventional ICP spectrometry. By using this system, significantly lower detection limits were obtained related to the conventional ICP-AES method. The analysis results showed a close correlation between the daily mean volume of traffic and metals accumulated in the soil samples. On the other hand, using this method similar heavy metal profiles were gained, i.e. the total and plant-available heavy metal concentrations were the highest in the 0-1 m region from the road, and the further sampling points (0-90 m) showed significantly lower and lower heavy metal contents until at about 90 m distance from the road, where heavy metal contamination reached such a low value that can be considered to be the environmental background level. A similar trend was also recognised in plants; the plants very near to the road surface accumulated very high amounts of lead, cadmium and other heavy metals derived from vehicular traffic. The results revealed different behaviours of contaminants in different conditions inside the roadside areas (soil pH and heavy metal content, species and abundance of flora at the different sampling points, etc.). For example, total and available concentrations were apparently low only in one sampling site where each sampling point of the cross-section showed acid soil medium. Generally, acid pH means higher mobility of heavy metals, which was verified in our study too, as low concentrations in soil are associated with high accumulation factors in plants. Both single- and two-factor ANOVA results showed that total and available lead contents were not significantly different between sampling sites, therefore they were considered as traffic as the main contaminating source produced near the same lead content in different conditions. Single-factor ANOVAs showed significant differences, meanwhile two-factor ANOVAs did not show significant differences among mean lead contents detected in plants sampled in the five sites. These different results for lead showed that with the increase of variables (from one to two factors) the mathematical differences between lead contents became less and less significant. It calls for paying attention to the evaluation of bioindication and requires use of all the available variables in order to gain precise results from sampled areas. Some plants such as Echinocloa crus-galli, Clematis recta, Artemisia vulgaris, Crepis biennis, Portulaca oleracea and Lathyrus pratensis were found to be good indicators, as they accumulated three or four different heavy metals in high concentrations. In addition to their sensitive indicating ability, the majority of these plants are weeds of cereals in arable lands, and so are easily available in roadside areas.",
keywords = "Contamination, Heavy metals, HHPN-ICP, Leaded fuel, Roadside area, Soil-plant relationship",
author = "P{\'e}ter D{\'a}niel and B. Kov{\'a}cs and J{\'o}zsef Prokisch and Z. Gy{\'o}ri",
year = "1997",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "83--93",
journal = "Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability",
issn = "0954-2299",
publisher = "Science Reviews Ltd",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Heavy metal dispersion detected in soils and plants alongside roads in Hungary

AU - Dániel, Péter

AU - Kovács, B.

AU - Prokisch, József

AU - Gyóri, Z.

PY - 1997

Y1 - 1997

N2 - Soil and plant samples from roadside areas contaminated with toxic by-products of vehicular traffic (for example, lead compounds from leaded fuel, metal contaminants derived from spare parts) were analysed in the case of five Hungarian sampling sites. The analyses were carried out with a new analytical method which is based on the use of a high performance sample introduction unit in the conventional ICP spectrometry. By using this system, significantly lower detection limits were obtained related to the conventional ICP-AES method. The analysis results showed a close correlation between the daily mean volume of traffic and metals accumulated in the soil samples. On the other hand, using this method similar heavy metal profiles were gained, i.e. the total and plant-available heavy metal concentrations were the highest in the 0-1 m region from the road, and the further sampling points (0-90 m) showed significantly lower and lower heavy metal contents until at about 90 m distance from the road, where heavy metal contamination reached such a low value that can be considered to be the environmental background level. A similar trend was also recognised in plants; the plants very near to the road surface accumulated very high amounts of lead, cadmium and other heavy metals derived from vehicular traffic. The results revealed different behaviours of contaminants in different conditions inside the roadside areas (soil pH and heavy metal content, species and abundance of flora at the different sampling points, etc.). For example, total and available concentrations were apparently low only in one sampling site where each sampling point of the cross-section showed acid soil medium. Generally, acid pH means higher mobility of heavy metals, which was verified in our study too, as low concentrations in soil are associated with high accumulation factors in plants. Both single- and two-factor ANOVA results showed that total and available lead contents were not significantly different between sampling sites, therefore they were considered as traffic as the main contaminating source produced near the same lead content in different conditions. Single-factor ANOVAs showed significant differences, meanwhile two-factor ANOVAs did not show significant differences among mean lead contents detected in plants sampled in the five sites. These different results for lead showed that with the increase of variables (from one to two factors) the mathematical differences between lead contents became less and less significant. It calls for paying attention to the evaluation of bioindication and requires use of all the available variables in order to gain precise results from sampled areas. Some plants such as Echinocloa crus-galli, Clematis recta, Artemisia vulgaris, Crepis biennis, Portulaca oleracea and Lathyrus pratensis were found to be good indicators, as they accumulated three or four different heavy metals in high concentrations. In addition to their sensitive indicating ability, the majority of these plants are weeds of cereals in arable lands, and so are easily available in roadside areas.

AB - Soil and plant samples from roadside areas contaminated with toxic by-products of vehicular traffic (for example, lead compounds from leaded fuel, metal contaminants derived from spare parts) were analysed in the case of five Hungarian sampling sites. The analyses were carried out with a new analytical method which is based on the use of a high performance sample introduction unit in the conventional ICP spectrometry. By using this system, significantly lower detection limits were obtained related to the conventional ICP-AES method. The analysis results showed a close correlation between the daily mean volume of traffic and metals accumulated in the soil samples. On the other hand, using this method similar heavy metal profiles were gained, i.e. the total and plant-available heavy metal concentrations were the highest in the 0-1 m region from the road, and the further sampling points (0-90 m) showed significantly lower and lower heavy metal contents until at about 90 m distance from the road, where heavy metal contamination reached such a low value that can be considered to be the environmental background level. A similar trend was also recognised in plants; the plants very near to the road surface accumulated very high amounts of lead, cadmium and other heavy metals derived from vehicular traffic. The results revealed different behaviours of contaminants in different conditions inside the roadside areas (soil pH and heavy metal content, species and abundance of flora at the different sampling points, etc.). For example, total and available concentrations were apparently low only in one sampling site where each sampling point of the cross-section showed acid soil medium. Generally, acid pH means higher mobility of heavy metals, which was verified in our study too, as low concentrations in soil are associated with high accumulation factors in plants. Both single- and two-factor ANOVA results showed that total and available lead contents were not significantly different between sampling sites, therefore they were considered as traffic as the main contaminating source produced near the same lead content in different conditions. Single-factor ANOVAs showed significant differences, meanwhile two-factor ANOVAs did not show significant differences among mean lead contents detected in plants sampled in the five sites. These different results for lead showed that with the increase of variables (from one to two factors) the mathematical differences between lead contents became less and less significant. It calls for paying attention to the evaluation of bioindication and requires use of all the available variables in order to gain precise results from sampled areas. Some plants such as Echinocloa crus-galli, Clematis recta, Artemisia vulgaris, Crepis biennis, Portulaca oleracea and Lathyrus pratensis were found to be good indicators, as they accumulated three or four different heavy metals in high concentrations. In addition to their sensitive indicating ability, the majority of these plants are weeds of cereals in arable lands, and so are easily available in roadside areas.

KW - Contamination

KW - Heavy metals

KW - HHPN-ICP

KW - Leaded fuel

KW - Roadside area

KW - Soil-plant relationship

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0002100258&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0002100258&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0002100258

VL - 9

SP - 83

EP - 93

JO - Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability

JF - Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability

SN - 0954-2299

IS - 3

ER -