Heating during agitation of β2-microglobulin reveals that supersaturation breakdown is required for amyloid fibril formation at neutral pH

Masahiro Noji, Kenji Sasahara, Keiichi Yamaguchi, Masatomo So, Kazumasa Sakurai, Jozsef Kardos, Hironobu Naiki, Yuji Goto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Amyloidosis-associated amyloid fibrils are formed by denatured proteins when supersaturation of denatured proteins is broken. β2-Microglobulin (β2m) forms amyloid fibrils and causes dialysis-related amyloidosis in patients receiving longterm hemodialysis. Although amyloid fibrils of β2m in patients are observed at neutral pH, formation of β2m amyloids in vitro has been difficult to discern at neutral pH because of the amyloid-resistant native structure. Here, to further understand the mechanism underlying in vivo amyloid formation, we investigated the relationship between protein folding/unfolding and misfolding leading to amyloid formation. Using thioflavin T assays, CD spectroscopy, and transmission EM analyses, we found that β2m efficiently forms amyloid fibrils even at neutral pH by heating with agitation at high-salt conditions. We constructed temperature- and NaCl concentration- dependent conformational phase diagrams in the presence or absence of agitation, revealing how amyloid formation under neutral pH conditions is related to thermal unfolding and breakdown of supersaturation. Of note, after supersaturation breakdown and following the law of mass action, the β2m monomer equilibrium shifted to the unfolded state, destabilizing the native state and thereby enabling amyloid formation even under physiological conditions with a low amount of unfolded precursor. The amyloid fibrils depolymerized at both lower and higher temperatures, resembling cold- or heat-induced denaturation of globular proteins. Our results suggest an important role for heating in the onset of dialysisrelated amyloidosis and related amyloidoses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15826-15835
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume294
Issue number43
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 25 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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