In this paper we report experiments where we shear granular rods in split-bottom geometries, and find that a significant heap of height of least 40% of the filling height can form at the particle surface. We show that heaping is caused by a significant secondary flow, absent for spherical particles. Flow reversal transiently reverses the secondary flow, leading to a quick collapse and slower regeneration of the heap. We present a symmetry argument and experimental data that show that the generation of the secondary flow is driven by a misalignment of the mean particle orientation with the streamlines of the flow. This general mechanism is expected to be important in all flows of sufficiently anisometric grains.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics