Instead of LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol is proposed as a secondary lipid target when triglyceride level is above 2.3 mmol/L. Non-HDL-cholesterol target values are 0.8 mmol/L higher than those for LDL-cholesterol in the same cardiovascular risk category. Currently, the main issue of lipidology is the degree by which the cardiovascular risk can be reduced with the treatment of residual dyslipidemia that exists under statin therapy. In such a role the examined agents have essentially failed despite their more or less profound effect on HDL-cholesterol and/or non-HDL-cholesterol. The largest loser has been the nicotinic acid. The results of cardiovascular, otherwise controversial fish oil studies cannot be considered convincing because of the administered low doses. In a combination with statin (i) ezetimibe may have role if the LDL-cholesterol target cannot be reached with statin monotherapy, or (ii) fibrates, in case of large increase of triglyceride level, or in less severe hypertriglyceridemia if it is associated with considerable decrease in HDL-cholesterol level. Potential further possibilities are: (i) cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors that dramatically raise HDL-cholesterol, while reduce LDL-cholesterol, or (ii) proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 inhibitors that markedly decrease LDL-cholesterol even on the top of statin.
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