Hardware-in-the-loop Experiments in Presence of Delay

Zsolt Veraszto, Gabor Stepan

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article


A widely used tool of engineering research and development is the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experiment. Instead of building the full prototype of a developed machine, only its most critical parts are constructed physically, while the rest of the machine is emulated by means of actuators, sensors, and digital control in between. If the mathematical model of the rest of the machine is available, the control unit provides a realistic environment for the physically constructed test part. The control, however, introduces digital effects into this system which is originally continuous. From dynamical view-point, the most relevant digital effects are the appearances of delay and zero-order-hold (ZOH). The paper compares the nonlinear dynamics of the real system and the one constructed by means of the HIL experiment. The two systems are compared from stability and nonlinear vibrations view-point in case of a brake system where stick-slip phenomenon occurs. The limitations of HIL experiments are identified by means of Hopf bifurcation calculations, numerical simulations and dynamic measurements carried out on the corresponding experimental test rig.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-30
Number of pages7
JournalProcedia IUTAM
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017
EventIUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear and Delayed Dynamics of Mechatronic Systems, IUTAM Symposia 2016 - Nanjing, China
Duration: Oct 17 2016Oct 21 2016



  • Hopf bifurcation
  • Neimark-Sacker bifurcation
  • hardware-in-the-loop

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering

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