Guanine-adenine bias: A general property of retroid viruses that is unrelated to host-induced hypermutation

Viktor Müller, Sebastian Bonhoeffer

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

13 Citations (Scopus)


The recently discovered mammalian enzymes, APOBEC3G and 3F, induce guanine-to-adenine hypermutation in retroviruses. However, the preference of adenine over guanine in retroviral codon usage is not correlated with the presence or absence of APOBEC3G or its viral inhibitor (Vif), and its pattern does not reflect the biochemical properties of APOBEC3G action. The guanine-adenine bias of retroviruses is thus probably not a result of host-induced mutational pressure, but rather reflects a general predisposition associated with reverse transcription.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-268
Number of pages5
JournalTrends in Genetics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2005


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

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