Growth of Himantoglossum adriaticum and H. caprinum individuals, and relationship between sizes and flowering

J. Bódis, Z. Botta-Dukát

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


The long-term protection of plant species is impossible without a comprehensive and thorough knowledge of their biology. This paper deals with some of the important aspects of the biology of two strictly protected species, Himantoglossum adriaticum and H. caprinum. The changes of the leaf area of plants were measured with a non-destructive method and the growth pattern was investigated during the vegetation period. It was also studied how the plant size of individuals changed from year to year, and what kind of connection there was between the plant condition and the flowering. Large size plants of both species were characterised by intensive growth rates in autumn and spring, their growth stopped in winter. Often they lost some of their leaf areas because of damage from insects (mainly in the case of H. caprinum), and frost (almost exclusively in the case of H. adriaticum). In some years the medium and small size plants were characterised by similar growth pattern to those of large size ones, but more often their growth did not stop in winter, though their growth was not so fast. The medium and small size H. caprinum individuals showed an intense autumn growth only in one vegetation period, which characterised both large size individuals of H. caprinum and all individuals of H. adriaticum. The constant annual rate of growth, which may have been slowed meaning that the leaf number did not grow, but it did not stop either, was detected in hardly more than 10% of individuals with both species. In the case of H. adriaticum the critical size for flowering seemed to be 50 cm2, which was usually reached in the four-leaf stage of the rosettes. The same value was 100 cm 2 in the case of H. caprinum and it needed at least a six-leaf basal rosette. The leaf number and the leaf area of reproductive plants had been larger for already two years before flowering took place, than those of the plants that remained vegetative.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-274
Number of pages18
JournalActa Botanica Hungarica
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2008


  • Critical rosette size
  • Flowering
  • Growth pattern
  • H. caprinum
  • Himantoglossum adriaticum
  • Leaf area

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Plant Science

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Growth of Himantoglossum adriaticum and H. caprinum individuals, and relationship between sizes and flowering'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this