Grapevine pathogens spreading with propagating plant stock: Detection and methods for elimination

György Dénes Bisztray, Edwin L. Civerolo, Terézia Dula, Mária Kölber, János Lázár, Laura Mugnai, E. Szegedi, Michael A. Savka

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The use of healthy propagating material is a key factor in viticulture. Besides causing symptomatic diseases several grapevine pathogens occurin the host plant as systemic latent (symptomless) infections. Thisphenomenon frequently causes epidemic disease outbreaks in newplantations leading to significant economic losses and regulatoryconsequences. Therefore, the use of pathogen-free propagating material isa critical component of integrated strategies to manage plant diseases.At present, more than 70 virus- and virus-like diseases of grapevinesare known. Some of them (e.g., grapevine degeneration, leaf roll) cancause significant economic losses or may even be lethal (e.g., Rugosewood). Eight phytoplasmas belonging to five different groups are knownto cause severe diseases with the same or very similar symptoms ofgrapevine yellows worldwide. Flavescence doree induced by 'CandidatusPhytoplasma vitis' of the 16SrV-C group, and the diseases describedunder different names but caused by phytoplasmas belonging to the16SrXII group play very important roles in grapevine production.Crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis occurs in nearlyall grape growing countries of the world, while Pierce's disease (Xylellafastidosa) and bacterial necrosis (Xylophilus ampelinus) have beendescribed in North and Central America, in the Mediterranean region ofEurope and South Africa, respectively. Fungal diseases (e.g., Petridisease, Esca) leading to death of canes and trunk have emerged asimportant factors in viticulture in recent decades worldwide. Severalfungal pathogens were found to cause decline in young vines e.g.,Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium spp., Cylindrocarponspp., while others can cause different trunk diseases in the field as cankeragents (e. g., Eutypa lata, species of Botryosphaeriaceae) and decayagents such as Fomitiporia mediterranea.Pathogen-free propagating stock material can be obtained by testingexisting plant material to select healthy plants and produced byappropriate curative treatments or propagation methods. For identificationof virus free plants, testing on woody plant indicators (grapevines that areespecially susceptible to a given virus) by tissue grafting is still a basicand important approach. In parallel, ELISA and reverse transcriptionPCR that provide more rapid results are also widely used. For diagnosis,detection and identification of phytoplasmas, bacteria and fungi varioussophisticated PCR-based protocols are now available (e.g. quantitativereal-time PCR, multiplex PCR, nested PCR, etc.).For the elimination of viruses, grape plants are heat-treated bygrowing at 38°C or shoot tips are frozen in liquid nitrogen prior tostarting in vitro cultures from apical meristems. Hot water treatment ofdormant woody canes kills phytoplasmas, X. fastidiosa and X. ampelinusbut does not completely eliminate A. vitis and fungal pathogens, althoughit strongly reduces the infection rate. To produce bacterium-free plants invitro shoot tip cultures or shoot tip propagation can be used. Thepathogen-free plants obtained by either of the above protocols serve as abasic material to establish stock plantations for large-scale production ofpropagating material in vineyards.Besides the pathogens described above, there are several pests whichdirectly cause damage, contribute to the spreading of pathogens asvectors or promote their infections through causing wounds. The mostcommon of such pests of grapes are nematodes, mites, phylloxera andinsect vectors of viruses. They can be eliminated from dormant canes byhot water treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGrapevines: Varieties, Cultivation and Management
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Pages1-86
Number of pages86
ISBN (Print)9781621003618
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012

Fingerprint

Vitis
Phytoplasma
Canes
pathogens
viticulture
viruses
canes
Plant Viruses
Rhizobium vitis
Water Purification
Viruses
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Xylophilus ampelinus
tree trunk
Infection
methodology
Plant Tumors
Economics
grapes
Plant Shoots

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Bisztray, G. D., Civerolo, E. L., Dula, T., Kölber, M., Lázár, J., Mugnai, L., ... Savka, M. A. (2012). Grapevine pathogens spreading with propagating plant stock: Detection and methods for elimination. In Grapevines: Varieties, Cultivation and Management (pp. 1-86). Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

Grapevine pathogens spreading with propagating plant stock : Detection and methods for elimination. / Bisztray, György Dénes; Civerolo, Edwin L.; Dula, Terézia; Kölber, Mária; Lázár, János; Mugnai, Laura; Szegedi, E.; Savka, Michael A.

Grapevines: Varieties, Cultivation and Management. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012. p. 1-86.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Bisztray, GD, Civerolo, EL, Dula, T, Kölber, M, Lázár, J, Mugnai, L, Szegedi, E & Savka, MA 2012, Grapevine pathogens spreading with propagating plant stock: Detection and methods for elimination. in Grapevines: Varieties, Cultivation and Management. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 1-86.
Bisztray GD, Civerolo EL, Dula T, Kölber M, Lázár J, Mugnai L et al. Grapevine pathogens spreading with propagating plant stock: Detection and methods for elimination. In Grapevines: Varieties, Cultivation and Management. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2012. p. 1-86
Bisztray, György Dénes ; Civerolo, Edwin L. ; Dula, Terézia ; Kölber, Mária ; Lázár, János ; Mugnai, Laura ; Szegedi, E. ; Savka, Michael A. / Grapevine pathogens spreading with propagating plant stock : Detection and methods for elimination. Grapevines: Varieties, Cultivation and Management. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012. pp. 1-86
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AU - Bisztray, György Dénes

AU - Civerolo, Edwin L.

AU - Dula, Terézia

AU - Kölber, Mária

AU - Lázár, János

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N2 - The use of healthy propagating material is a key factor in viticulture. Besides causing symptomatic diseases several grapevine pathogens occurin the host plant as systemic latent (symptomless) infections. Thisphenomenon frequently causes epidemic disease outbreaks in newplantations leading to significant economic losses and regulatoryconsequences. Therefore, the use of pathogen-free propagating material isa critical component of integrated strategies to manage plant diseases.At present, more than 70 virus- and virus-like diseases of grapevinesare known. Some of them (e.g., grapevine degeneration, leaf roll) cancause significant economic losses or may even be lethal (e.g., Rugosewood). Eight phytoplasmas belonging to five different groups are knownto cause severe diseases with the same or very similar symptoms ofgrapevine yellows worldwide. Flavescence doree induced by 'CandidatusPhytoplasma vitis' of the 16SrV-C group, and the diseases describedunder different names but caused by phytoplasmas belonging to the16SrXII group play very important roles in grapevine production.Crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis occurs in nearlyall grape growing countries of the world, while Pierce's disease (Xylellafastidosa) and bacterial necrosis (Xylophilus ampelinus) have beendescribed in North and Central America, in the Mediterranean region ofEurope and South Africa, respectively. Fungal diseases (e.g., Petridisease, Esca) leading to death of canes and trunk have emerged asimportant factors in viticulture in recent decades worldwide. Severalfungal pathogens were found to cause decline in young vines e.g.,Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium spp., Cylindrocarponspp., while others can cause different trunk diseases in the field as cankeragents (e. g., Eutypa lata, species of Botryosphaeriaceae) and decayagents such as Fomitiporia mediterranea.Pathogen-free propagating stock material can be obtained by testingexisting plant material to select healthy plants and produced byappropriate curative treatments or propagation methods. For identificationof virus free plants, testing on woody plant indicators (grapevines that areespecially susceptible to a given virus) by tissue grafting is still a basicand important approach. In parallel, ELISA and reverse transcriptionPCR that provide more rapid results are also widely used. For diagnosis,detection and identification of phytoplasmas, bacteria and fungi varioussophisticated PCR-based protocols are now available (e.g. quantitativereal-time PCR, multiplex PCR, nested PCR, etc.).For the elimination of viruses, grape plants are heat-treated bygrowing at 38°C or shoot tips are frozen in liquid nitrogen prior tostarting in vitro cultures from apical meristems. Hot water treatment ofdormant woody canes kills phytoplasmas, X. fastidiosa and X. ampelinusbut does not completely eliminate A. vitis and fungal pathogens, althoughit strongly reduces the infection rate. To produce bacterium-free plants invitro shoot tip cultures or shoot tip propagation can be used. Thepathogen-free plants obtained by either of the above protocols serve as abasic material to establish stock plantations for large-scale production ofpropagating material in vineyards.Besides the pathogens described above, there are several pests whichdirectly cause damage, contribute to the spreading of pathogens asvectors or promote their infections through causing wounds. The mostcommon of such pests of grapes are nematodes, mites, phylloxera andinsect vectors of viruses. They can be eliminated from dormant canes byhot water treatment.

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