The squared mass of a complex scalar field is turned dynamically negative by its O(2)-invariant coupling to a real field slowly rolling down in a quadratic potential. The emergence of gapless excitations is studied in real time simulations after spinodal instability occurs. Careful tests demonstrate that the Goldstone modes appear almost instantly after the symmetry breaking is over, much before thermal equilibrium is established.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)