We consider a globally hyperbolic, stationary spacetime containing a black hole but no white hole. We assume, further, that the event horizon, script N, of the black hole is a Killing horizon with compact cross-sections. We prove that if surface gravity is non-zero and constant throughout the horizon one can globally extend such a spacetime so that the image of script N is a proper subset of a regular bifurcate Killing horizon in the enlarged spacetime. The necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the extendibility of matter fields to the enlarged spacetime. These conditions are automatically satisfied if the spacetime is static (and hence 't'-reflection symmetric) or stationary-axisymmetric with 't-φ' reflection isometry and the matter fields respect the reflection isometry. In addition, we prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the constancy of the surface gravity on a Killing horizon is that the exterior derivative of the twist of the horizon Killing field vanishes on the horizon. As a corollary of this, we recover a result of Carter that constancy of surface gravity holds for any black hole which is static or stationary-axisymmetric with the 't-φ' reflection isometry. No use of Einstein's equation is made in obtaining any of the above results. Taken together, these results support the view that any spacetime representing the asymptotic final state of a black hole formed by gravitational collapse may be assumed to possess a bifurcate Killing horizon or a Killing horizon with vanishing surface gravity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)