Geographical variability and environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease

Siew C. Ng, Charles N. Bernstein, Morten H. Vatn, P. Lakatos, Edward V. Loftus, Curt Tysk, Colm O'Morain, Bjorn Moum, Jean Frédéric Colombel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

247 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The changing epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) across time and geography suggests that environmental factors play a major role in modifying disease expression. Disease emergence in developing nations suggests that epidemiological evolution is related to westernisation of lifestyle and industrialisation. The strongest environmental associations identified are cigarette smoking and appendectomy, although neither alone explains the variation in incidence of IBD worldwide. Urbanisation of societies, associated with changes in diet, antibiotic use, hygiene status, microbial exposures and pollution have been implicated as potential environmental risk factors for IBD. Changes in socioeconomic status might occur differently in different geographical areas and populations and, consequently, it is important to consider the heterogeneity of risk factors applicable to the individual patient. Environmental risk factors of individual, familial, community-based, countrybased and regionally based origin may all contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. The geographical variation of IBD provides clues for researchers to investigate possible environmental aetiological factors. The present review aims to provide an update of the literature exploring geographical variability in IBD and to explore the environmental risk factors that may account for this variability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)630-649
Number of pages20
JournalGut
Volume62
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013

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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Geography
Urbanization
Appendectomy
Hygiene
Social Class
Developing Countries
Life Style
Epidemiology
Smoking
Research Personnel
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Diet
Incidence
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Ng, S. C., Bernstein, C. N., Vatn, M. H., Lakatos, P., Loftus, E. V., Tysk, C., ... Colombel, J. F. (2013). Geographical variability and environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut, 62(4), 630-649. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303661

Geographical variability and environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease. / Ng, Siew C.; Bernstein, Charles N.; Vatn, Morten H.; Lakatos, P.; Loftus, Edward V.; Tysk, Curt; O'Morain, Colm; Moum, Bjorn; Colombel, Jean Frédéric.

In: Gut, Vol. 62, No. 4, 04.2013, p. 630-649.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ng, SC, Bernstein, CN, Vatn, MH, Lakatos, P, Loftus, EV, Tysk, C, O'Morain, C, Moum, B & Colombel, JF 2013, 'Geographical variability and environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease', Gut, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 630-649. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303661
Ng, Siew C. ; Bernstein, Charles N. ; Vatn, Morten H. ; Lakatos, P. ; Loftus, Edward V. ; Tysk, Curt ; O'Morain, Colm ; Moum, Bjorn ; Colombel, Jean Frédéric. / Geographical variability and environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease. In: Gut. 2013 ; Vol. 62, No. 4. pp. 630-649.
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