In the past few years, electrophoresis microchips have been increasingly utilized to interrogate genetic variations in the human and other genomes. Microfluidic devices can be readily applied to speed up existing genotyping protocols, in particular the ones that require electric field-mediated separations in conjunction with restriction fragment analysis, DNA sequencing, hybridization-based techniques, allele-specific amplification, heteroduplex analysis, just to list the most important ones. As a result of recent developments, microfabricated electrophoresis devices offer several advantages over conventional slab-gel electrophoresis, such as small sample volume requirement, low reagent consumption, the option of system integration and easy multiplexing. The analysis speed of microchip electrophoresis is significantly higher than that of any other electric field-mediated separation techniques. State-of-the-art microfluidic bio-analytical devices already claim their place in most molecular biology laboratories. This review summarizes the recent developments in microchip electrophoresis methods of nucleic acids, particularly for rapid genotyping, that will most likely play a significant role in the future of clinical diagnostics.
- Microchip electrophoresis
- Single-nucleotide polymorphism
- Variable number of tandem repeats
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry