This review provides an up-dated collection of data concerning the genetic and epigenetic changes during development, growth and progression of prostate cancer. Hereditary and susceptibility factors have a long list, similarly to the expression of single genes connected to various cell functions. It was a hope that covering a large set of genes, array technologies would clarify very rapidly the role of genetics in malignant diseases, offering targets for molecular diagnostics and therapy. The power of high-throughput techniques for the detection and global analysis of gene expression is unquestionable, interesting, astonishing as well as puzzling data have already been obtained. However, the standardization of the procedures is still missing and the reproducibility is rather low in many instances. Moreover, the different array methods can select different gene expression profiles, which makes the decision rather difficult. Another important question is, coming again from the array technologies, how far the genotype (the gene profiles or fingerprints) can reflect the actual phenotype in a highly complex and readily changing disease as cancer. Proteomics will provide a closer look to this seemingly unanswerable problem. We are at the beginning of the exploration of the behavior of cancer cells in order to apply a more effective therapy based on a more reliable set of diagnostic and prognostic informations.
- Prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cancer Research