Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 are active in sebaceous glands and play a central role in the development of acne. Still, there is only limited knowledge on their effect on sebocytes. In this work we performed global gene expression profile analysis with functional clustering of the differentially regulated genes of TLR1/2 (PAM3CSK4)- and TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-activated SZ95 sebocytes. Both TLR1/2- and 4-activation promoted inflammation in a similar manner already at an early time-point (6 hours), regulating genes involved in inflammation, wound healing and chemotaxis reflecting a more complex cytokine and chemokine regulation than previously known. Importantly, lipid metabolism, the primary feature of sebocytes, was affected at the level of gene expression only at a later time point (24 hours) indicating that sebocytes prioritize to exert a pro-inflammatory phenotype when confronted with a danger signal. Supporting the biological relevance of our results, a meta-analysis revealed that the genes showing the strongest up-regulation were also found up-regulated in acne. Of these genes, serum amyloid A 1/2 (SAA1/2) was confirmed to be a suitable protein marker for in vivo activated sebocytes, underlining their immune-competence, which is structurally defined within sebaceous glands of acne and rosacea skin samples. Altogether our findings demonstrate that sebocytes are not only positioned at the end point of inflammation but are actively involved in shaping the inflammatory response with putative diagnostic and therapeutic relevance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)