Acute renal failure (ARF) affects about 10% of severely ill neonates. Recent studies have shown that genetic polymorphisms of proteins that play a role in neonatal physiology may contribute to individual susceptibility to both ARF and its risk factors. Our review summarizes the data collected to date. Studies have shown that the risk of preterm neonates for ARF is directly associated with a combination of high tumor necrosis factor-α producer and low interleukin-6 producer genotypes, as well as with low heat shock protein 72 producer genotype. Premature birth is itself the most important risk factor for a number of complications, including ARF, and recent studies have also shown an association between several maternal and fetal cytokine genetic polymorphisms and increased inflammatory response in preterm neonates. These polymorphisms could also be associated with increased risk for disorders such as sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis, which lead to renal hypoperfusion and ARF. Genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have not been shown to directly influence risk for ARF. They may, however, be associated with patent ductus arteriosus, poor postnatal adaptation, and heart failure, which are all prevalent risk factors for ARF.
- Acute renal failure
- Genetic polymorphism
- Heat shock protein
- Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health